Tag Archives: Robert Creeley

Gryphon

Born on January 2, 1922, Richard Rubenstein began his literary career in a local prep school when he won a poetry contest. Associated with the Beat Poets in the San Francisco Bay Area, Rubenstein worked to found and edit several small press poetry journals – Neurotica, first published in spring of 1948; Inferno, in late 1949; and Gryphon, in spring of 1950. In Gryphon he published early works of Robert Creeley and Denise Levertov, as well as the established authors Henry Treece, D.H. Emblem, e.e. cummings, and Cid Corman. He himself published a small chapbook, Beer and Angels, and produced a long manuscript of collected poems which went unpublished. Rubenstein’s health deteriorated because of his long-standing nervous condition and the alcohol he drank to combat it. He died on Yom Kippur in 1958.

1. GRYPHON, No. 1, edited by Richard Rubinstein
San Francisco: Gryphon, Spring 1950

2. GRYPHON, No. 2, edited by Richard Rubinstein
San Francisco: Gryphon, Fall 1950

3. GRYPHON, No. 3, edited by Richard Rubinstein
San Francisco: Gryphon, Spring 1951

HEARSE, A VEHICLE USED TO CONVEY THE DEAD

Starting with the publication of HEARSE 1 in 1957, E. V. Griffith’s HEARSE PRESS would go on to publish 17 issues of the little magazine, a series of 18 chapbooks including Charles Bukowski’s mags_hearse01first, and COFFIN, a portfolio of broadsides. Among those published by HEARSE PRESS are Richard Brautigan, Charles Bukowski, Judson Crews, Russell Atkins, Mason Jordan Mason, Larry Eigner, Lawrence Ferlinghetti, Allen Ginsberg, Joel Oppenheimer, Paul Blackburn, Robert Creeley, LeRoi Jones, and many more.

According to Griffith in SHEAF, HEARSE, COFFIN, POETRY NOW: A HISTORY (Hearse Press, 1996):
“In format, HEARSE was a center-stapled booklet 5.5″ x 8.5″ page size; the wire staples which held the propensity for rusting. The Rhino Bristol cover stock ran through several different colors — blue, gray, green, yellow, and (much later) pink — with the name in buk_flowerblack ink. (A few issues varied this by using white cover stock, and a colored ink.) Its appearance owed much to — in fact, almost copied — Larsen’s EXISTARIA.” (more…)

Fuck You/ a magazine of the arts

Fuck You/ a magazine of the arts ran for thirteen issues from 1962 to 1965. Considered one of the most influential underground magazines of the early sixties, Ed Sanders’ Fuck You was a deliberately fypprovocative mimeographed journal, at first emphasizing poetry and later expanding to include other writing. Each issue is illustrated with line drawings by Sanders.

Contributors include Sanders, Tuli Kupferberg, Carol Bergé, John Wieners, Andy Warhol, Ray Bremser, Lenore Kandel, Charles Olson, Joel Oppenheimer, Peter Orlovsky, Philip Whalen, Allen Ginsberg, Herbert Huncke, Julian Beck, Frank O’Hara, Leroi Jones, Diane DiPrima, William Burroughs, Gary Snyder, Robert Kelly, Judith Malina, Carl Solomon, Gregory Corso, Robert Duncan, Robert Creeley, Michael McClure, Ted Berrigan, Joe Brainard, Gilbert Sorrentino, and many others — a virtual “who’s who” of avant garde poetry in the Sixties.


1. Fuck You, No. 1, edited by Ed Sanders
New York: February 1962
First edition, side-stapled printed wrappers, 8.5″ x 11″, mimeograph. Cover by Ed Sanders.

2. Fuck You, No. 2, edited by Ed Sanders
New York: April 1962
First edition, side-stapled printed wrappers, 8.5″ x 11″, mimeograph. Cover by Ed Sanders.

3. Fuck You, No. 3, edited by Ed Sanders
New York: June 1962
First edition, side-stapled printed wrappers, 8.5″ x 11″, mimeograph. Cover by Ed Sanders.

4. Fuck You, No. 4, edited by Ed Sanders
New York: August 1962
First edition, side-stapled printed wrappers, 8.5″ x 11″, mimeograph. Cover by Ed Sanders.

5. Fuck You, No. 5, Vol. 1, edited by Ed Sanders
fy51New York: December 1962
First edition, side-stapled printed wrappers, 8.5″ x 11″, mimeograph. Cover by Ed Sanders.

“Dedicated to pacificism, national defense thru nonviolent resistence, total assault on the culture, vaginal zapping, multilateral indiscriminate apertural conjugation, Hole Cons, Crotch Lake, Peace Eye, mad bands of stompers for peace, & all those gropped by J. Edgar Hoover in the silent halls of congress.”

6. Fuck You, No. 5, Vol. 2, edited by Ed Sanders
New York: December 1962
First edition, side-stapled printed wrappers, 8.5″ x 11″, mimeograph. Cover by Ed Sanders.

7. Fuck You, Number 5, Volume 3, edited by Ed Sanders
New York: May 1963
First edition, side-stapled printed wrappers, 8.5″ x 11″, mimeograph. Cover by Ed Sanders.

“Dedicated to pacificism, National Defense thru Nonviolent Resistance, Anarchia the Goddess, Orlovsky’s long Egyptian finger, Peace Eye, Hole Cons, Peace Walk Dicking, dope thrill Banana rites, Acapulco Gold, Panamanian Red, Honduras Brown, windowbox freak grass, the anarcho-commio-greaser conspiracy, submarine boarders, mad bands of stompers for Peace, and all those groped by J. Edgar Hoover in the silent halls of Congress”.

8. Fuck You, Number 5, Volume 4, edited by Ed Sanders
New York: Summer 1963
First edition, side-stapled printed wrappers, 8.5″ x 11″, mimeograph. Cover by Ed Sanders.

9. Fuck You, Number 5, Volume 5, edited by Ed Sanders
New York: December 1963
First edition, side-stapled printed wrappers, 8.5″ x 11″, mimeograph. Cover by Ed Sanders.

10. Fuck You, Number 5, Volume 6, edited by Ed Sanders
New York: April/May 1963
First edition, side-stapled printed wrappers, 8.5″ x 11″, mimeograph. Cover by Ed Sanders.

11. Fuck You, Number 5, Volume 7, edited by Ed Sanders
New York: September 1964
First edition, side-stapled printed wrappers, 8.5″ x 11″, mimeograph. Cover by Ed Sanders.

12. Fuck You, Volume 5, Number 8, edited by Ed Sanders
New York: March 1965
First edition, side-stapled printed wrappers, 8.5″ x 11″, mimeograph. Cover artwork by Andy Warhol.

13. Fuck You/ a magazine of the arts, Volume 5, Number 9

Measure

wieners


“The three simple, almost starkly working-class issues of Measure followed glorious and overlooked “underground” poet John Wieners from Black Mountain College home to Boston, across country to San Francisco, and back to Boston again. In his years in San Francisco, from 1958 to 1960, Wieners attended (sometimes serving as host at his Scott Street apartment) the legendary Sunday afternoon poetry workshops of the charismatic poets Robert Duncan and Jack Spicer. Also present at the workshops were George Stanley, Harold Dull, Robin Blaser (The Pacific Nation), and many others…”
— from A Secret Location on the Lower East Side (Granary Books, 1998)

Measure, No. 1, edited by John Wieners
mags_measure01Boston: Measure, Summer 1957
Saddle-stapled printed wrappers, 5.5″ x 8.5″, 48 pages, letterpress printed at the Press of Villiers Publications..

“Measure is edited by John Wieners. It will be issued with the four seasons only through your support… Please understand that the opinions expressed in this magazine do not necessarily reflect those of the city.”

Contributors:
Tom Balas – “Le Fou”
Charles Olson – “Le Bonheur!”, “The Charge”, “Spring”
Edward Marshall – “One:”, “Two:”
Robin Blaser – “Poem”, “Letters to Freud”, “Poem by the Charles River”
Edward Dorn – “The Rick of Green Wood”
Larry Eigner – “Millionem”, “Brink”
Frank O’Hara – “section 9 from Second Avenue”
Fielding Dawson – “Two Drawings”
Stephen Jonas – “Word on Measure”, “Expanded Word on Measure”
Michael Rumaker – “Father”
Gavin Douglas – “The Blanket”
Jack Spicer – “Song for Bird and Myself”
Jonathan Williams – “Two Poems for Whitman, the Husbandman”
Robert Duncan – “The Propositions”

Measure, No. 2, edited by John Wieners
mags_measure2San Francisco: Measure, Winter 1958
Saddle-stapled printed wrappers, 5.5″ x 8.5″, 64 pages, letterpress printed at the Press of Villiers Publications.

“Magick is for the ones who ball, i.e. throw across”

Contributors:
Michael Rumaker – “The use of the Unconscious”
Robin Blaser – “The Hunger of Sound”
Robert Creeley – “Juggler’s Thot”
Michael Rumaker – “8 Dreams”
Jack Kerouac – “4 Choruses”
Charles Olson – “Descensus Spiritus No. 1”
Robert Duncan – “The Maiden”
Robert Creeley – “They Say”, “She Went to Say”
Jack Kerouac – “235th Chorus”
Edward Dorn – “Notes from the Fields”
Robert Duncan – “The Dance”
Stuart Z. Perkoff – “Feats of Death, Feasts of Love”
V. R. Lang – “The Recidivists”
Gregory Corso – “Yaaaah”
James Broughton – “Feathers or Lead”
Michael McClure – “The Magazine Cover”, “One & Two”
Robert Creeley – “The Tunnel”, “Just Friends”
Richard Duerden – “Musica No. 3”
Stephen Jonas – “Books 3 & 4 from a Long Poem”

Measure, No. 3, edited by John Wieners
mags_measure03Milton: Measure, Winter 1962
Saddle-stapled printed wrappers, 5.5″ x 8.5″, 36 pages, letterpress printed at the Press of Villiers Publications.

“THE CITY / 1 AM – Unreasonable fear, of the shadows of Harry Lime, of the dead reappearing”

Contributors:
James Schuyler – “Shed Market”, “Joint”
Gerrit Lansing – “Explorers”
Barbara Guest – “Safe Flights”, [untitled] “Once when he was a small boy…”,  “Abruptly, as if a Forest Might Say”
Helen Adam – “Anaid si Taerg (Great is Diana)”
Madeline Gleason – “Wind Said, Marry”
Robert Duncan – “What do I Know of the Old Lore?”
Jack Spicer – “Central Park West”
Larry Eigner – “Poem”
Tom Field – [untitled] “Form is never more than the extension…”
Edward Marshall – “Times Square”, “2”, “3”
John Wieners – “The Imperatrice”
Philip Lamantia – “Opus Magnum”
Sheri Martinelli – “Ruth Gildenberg”
Michael Rumaker – “The River at Night”
Charles Olson – “The Year is a Great Circle…”, The Post Virginal”, [untitled] “Desartes, age 34…”
John Haines – “Poem”, “Pawnee Dust”

Oyez Press

Oyez Press was founded in 1964 by Robert Hawley and Stevens van Strum in Berkeley, California. Its inaugural run was a series of 10 broadsides featuring poems by Michael McClure, Brother Antoninus, Josephine Miles, Robert Duncan, Robert Creeley, David Meltzer, Denise Levertov, Charles Olson, Gary Snyder and William Bronk. These broadsides were printed by Dave Haselwood’s Auerhahn Press based in San Francisco.

Oyez would continue to publish books for over 20 years by poets primarily from the Black Mountain school and the Bay Area Renaissance; publishing over 80 books in addition to numerous keepsakes and broadsides, featuring authors such as David Meltzer, Josephine Miles, Lew Welch, Philip Lamantia, and many others.

The first Oyez book was a collection of poetry by David Meltzer. It was during this period that Hawley began his business relationship with printer Graham Mackintosh. The Oyez poetry editions were well regarded for the simplicity and elegance of their designs. Although not all Oyez books were designed by Mackintosh, several of his designs did receive awards, including an edition of William Everson’s Single Source that was selected as one of the 50 books of the year by the American Institute of Graphic Arts.


1. McClure, Michael. TWO FOR BRUCE CONNOR
Berkeley: Oyez, 1964
First edition, broadside, 12″ x 17″, 500 copies, printed by The Auerhahn Press. Published as Oyez 1. (Clements A12)

2. Everson, William. THE ROSE OF SOLITUDE
Berkeley: Oyez 1964
First edition, broadside, 13″ x 17.5″, printed by The Auerhahn Press. Published as Oyez 2.

3. Miles, Josephine. IN IDENTITY
San Francisco: Oyez, 1964
First edition, broadside, 11.5″ x 17″, Printed by The Auerhahn Press. Published as Oyez 3.

4. DUNCAN, Robert. WINE
San Francisco: Oyez, 1964
First edition, broadside, 11.5″ x 17″, Printed by The Auerhahn Press. Published as Oyez 4.

5. Creeley, Robert. TWO POEMS
[San Francisco]: Oyez, 1964
First edition, broadside, 11.25″ x 16.5″, 423 copies (27 signed in a portfolio), printed by The Auerhahn Press. Published as Oyez 5. (Novik 15)

6. Meltzer, David. THE BLACKEST ROSE
Berkeley: Oyez, 1964
First edition, broadside, 10.75″ x 17.5″, printed by The Auerhahn Press. Published as Oyez 6.

7. Levertov, Denise. CITY PSALM
Berkeley: Oyez, 1964
First First edition, broadside, 11.5″ x 17.5″, 300 copies, printed by The Auerhahn Press. Published as Oyez 7. (Wilson A8)

8. Olson, Charles. SIGNATURE TO PETITION
San Francisco: Oyez 1964.
First edition, broadside, 11″ x 17.25″, printed by The Auerhahn Press.Published as Oyez 8.

9. Snyder, Gary. HOP, SKIP, AND JUMP
(San Francisco): Oyez, 1964
First edition, broadside, 11″ x 17.5″, 350 copies, Printed by The Auerhahn Press. Published as Oyez 9.

10. Bronk, William. THE CIPHER
Berkeley: Oyez, 1965
First edition, broadside, 10.75″ x 17.5″, printed by The Auerhahn Press. Published as Oyez 10.

11. Meltzer, David. THE PROCESS
Berkeley: Oyez, 1965
A. First edition, paperback, 37 pages, 500 copies
B. First edition, hardcover, 37 pages, 25 copies

 

Dijkstra, Bram. FACES IN SKIN
Berkeley: Oyez, 1965
First edition, stapled wrappers in dust jacket, 32 pages, 500 copies.

Duncan, Robert. MEDEA AT KOLCHIS: THE MAIDEN HEAD
Berkeley: Oyez, 1965
A. First edition, stapled wrappers, 44 pages, 500 copies.
B. First edition, hardcover, 44 pages, 28 copies, numbered and signed.

Kherdian, David. DAVID MELTZER: A SKETCH AND CHECKLIST
Berkeley: Oyez, 1965
First edition, paperback, 9 pages, 500 copies

Kherdian, David. GARY SNYDER: A BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH AND DESCRIPTIVE CHECKLIST
Berkeley: Oyez, 1965
First edition, paperback, 30 pages, 500 copies

McClure, Michael. THE BEARD
Berkeley: Oyez, 1965
First edition, paperback, 70 pages, 330 copies

McClure, Michael. POISONED WHEAT
Berkeley: Oyez, 1965
First edition, paperback, 14 pages, 1000 copies

McGaugh, Lawrence. A FIFTH SUNDAY
Berkeley: Oyez, 1965
First edition, paperback, 26 pages, 500 copies

Alexander, D. NOT A WORD
Berkeley: Oyez, 1966
First edition, stapled wrappers, 58 pages, 500 copies.

Duncan, Robert. THE YEAR AS CATCHES
Berkeley: Oyez, 1966
A. First edition, paperback, 93 pages, 1800 copies.
B. First edition, hardcover, 93 pages, 30 copies, numbered and signed.

Duncan, Robert. OF THE WAR PASSAGES, 22-27
Berkeley: Oyez, 1966
A. First edition, paperback, 11 pages, 500 copies.
B. First edition, paperback, 11 pages, 100 copies, numbered and signed.
C. First edition, hardcover, 11 pages, 6 copies, numbered and signed.

Everson, William. SINGLE SOURCE: THE EARLY POEMS OF WILLIAM EVERSON (1934-1940)
Berkeley: Oyez, 1966
A. First edition, hardcover, 105 pages, 1000 copies
B. First edition, hardcover, 105 pages, 25 copies, numbered and signed

Fabilli, Mary. THE OLD ONES
Berkeley: Oyez, 1966
A. First edition, paperback, 28 pages, 500 copies
B. First edition, hardcover, 28 pages, 3 copies

Hogg, Robert. THE CONNEXIONS
Berkeley: Oyez, 1966
First edition, paperback, 40 pages, 500 copies

Lamantia, Philip. TOUCH OF THE MARVELOUS
Berkeley: Oyez, 1966
A. First edition, paperback, 65 pages, 1450 copies
B. First edition, hardcover, 65 pages, 50 copies, numbered and signed.

Miles, Josephine. CIVIL POEMS
Berkeley: Oyez, 1966
First edition, paperback, 16 pages, 500 copies

Miles, Josephine. FIELDS OF LEARNING
Berkeley: Oyez, 1966
First edition, paperback, 25 pages, 500 copies

Dusenbery, Gail. THE MARK
Berkeley: Oyez, 1967
A. First edition, paperback, 68 pages, 1200 copies.
B. First edition, hardcover, 68 pages, 26 copies, numbered and signed.

Everson, William. IN THE FICTIVE WISH
Berkeley: Oyez, 1967
First edition, hardcover, 22 pages, 200 copies, numbered and signed.

Korte, Mary Norbert. HYMN TO THE GENTLE SUN
Berkeley: Oyez, 1967
A. First edition, paperback, 45 pages, 900 copies
B. First edition, hardcover, 45 pages, 26 copies, numbered and signed

Meltzer, David. JOURNAL OF THE BIRTH
Berkeley: Oyez, 1967
First edition, paperback, 19 pages, 1000 copies

Meltzer, David. THE DARK CONTINENT
Berkeley: Oyez, 1967
A. First edition, paperback, 94 pages, 1000 copies
B. First edition, hardcover, 94 pages, 26 copies

Antoninus, Brother (William Everson). ROBINSON JEFFERS: FRAGMENTS OF AN OLDER FURY
1968
Hardcover, 173 pages, 2600 copies

Charters, Ann. OLSON/MELVILLE: A STUDY IN AFFINITY
1968
A. paperback, 90 pages, 1000 copies
B. hardcover, 90 pages, 500 copies

Fabilli, Mary. AURORA BLIGH & EARLY POEMS
Berkeley: Oyez, 1968
A. First edition, paperback, 108 pages, 500 copies
B. First edition, hardcover, 108 pages, 250 copies

Korte, Mary Norbert. BEGINNING OF LINES
Berkeley: Oyez, 1968
A. First edition, paperback, 37 pages, 500 copies
B. First edition, hardcover, 37 pages, 200 copies, numbered and signed

Antoninus, Brother. THE LAST CRUSADE
Berkeley: Oyez, 1969
First edition, hardcover, 18 pages, 165 numbered and signed copies

Boar, Gerard (Ebbe Borregaard). SKETCHES FOR 13 SONNETS
Berkeley: Oyez, 1969
First edition, paperback, (12 pages), 1600 copies

Charters, Samuel. TO THIS PLACE
Berkeley: Oyez, 1969
A. wrappers, 50 pages, 750 copies
B. hardcover, 50 copies, 250 copies

McGaugh, Lawrence. VACUUM CANTOS
Berkeley: Oyez, 1969
A. First edition, paperback, 30 pages, 500 copies
B. First edition, hardcover, 30 pages, 30 copies

Blazek, Douglas. FLUX & REFLUX
Berkeley: Oyez, 1970
Paperback, 57 pages, 1000 copies

Chiarrello, Gail (Gail Dusenbery). THE BHANGRA DANCE
Berkeley: Oyez, 1970
First edition, paperback, 34 pages, 485 copies.

Edelman, Richard Wayne. THE WEDDING FEAST
Berkeley: Oyez, 1970
First edition, paperback, 37 pages, 1000 copies. Introduction by Denise Levertov.

Hottel, Christopher. THE KNIVES OF DAWN
Berkeley: Oyez, 1970
First edition, paperback, 37 pages, 1000 copies

Korte, Mary Norbert. THE MIDNIGHT BRIDGE
Berkeley: Oyez, 1970
First edition, paperback, 44 pages, 1000 copies

Levertov, Denise. SUMMER POEMS, 1969
Berkeley: Oyez, 1970
A. First edition, paperback, 10 pages, 300 copies
B. First edition, hardcover, 10 pages, 50 copies

Olson, Charles. THE SPECIAL VIEW OF HISTORY
Berkeley: Oyez, 1970
A. First edition, paperback, 61 pages, 1000 copies
B. First edition, hardcover, 61 pages, 500 copies

Charters, Samuel. SOME POEMS POETS
Berkeley: Oyez, 1971
A. paperback, 118 pages, 1000 copies
B. hardcover, 118 pages, 500 copies

Di Prima, Dianne. KERHONKSON JOURNAL, 1966
Berkeley: Oyez, 1971
First edition, paperback, 39 pages, 1000 copies

Everson, William. EARTH POETRY
Berkeley: Oyez, 1971
First edition, paperback, 4 pages

Brugnola, Orlanda. KING OF THORNBUSHES
Berkeley: Oyez, 1972
A. First edition, paperback, 39 pages, 500 copies
B. First edition, hardcover, 39 pages, 20 copies, numbered and signed

Charters, Samuel. FROM A SWEDISH NOTEBOOK
Berkeley: Oyez, 1972
A. First edition, paperback, 60 pages, 500 copies
B. First edition, 60 pages, 500 copies

Eigner, Larry. SELECTED POEMS
Berkeley: Oyez, 1972
A. First edition, paperback, 125 pages, 1000 copies
B. First edition, hardcover in dust jacket, 125 pages, 500 copies

Horsley, James. GOD’S NAKED DAUGHTER
Berkeley: Oyez, 1972
A. First edition, paperback, 38 pages, 850 copies
B. First edition, hardcover, 38 pages, 150 copies, numbered and signed.

Hooker, Craig Michael. HONOR AWAKENS AGAIN
Berkeley: Oyez, 1973
First edition, paperback, 34 pages, 500 copies

Palmer, Doug.  IN QUIRE
Berkeley: Oyez, 1973
First edition, paperback, 56 pages, 650 copies

Cebulski, F.J. CORM
Berkeley: Oyez, 1974
A. Paperback, 59 pages, 750 copies
B. Hardcover, 59 pages, 250 copies

Hill, Lindsay. AVELAVAL
Berkeley: Oyez, 1974
A. First edition, paperback, 59 pages, 500 copies
B. First edition, hardcover, 59 pages, 250 copies

Meltzer, David. BLUE RAGS
Berkeley: Oyez, 1974
A. First edition, paperback, 25 pages, 1000 copies
B. First edition, hardcover, 25 pages, 250 copies

Everson, William. ARCHETYPE WEST: THE PACIFIC COAST AS A LITERARY REGION
Berkeley: Oyez, 1975
A. First edition, paperback, 181 pages, 1000 copies
B. First edition, hardcover, 181 pages, 500 copies

Fabilli, Mary. THE ANIMAL KINGDOM: POEMS & DRAWINGS
Berkeley: Oyez, 1975
First edition, paperback, 69 pages, 500 copies

Meltzer, David. HARPS
Berkeley: Oyez, 1975
A. First edition, paperback, 28 pages, 500 copies
B. First edition, hardcover, 28 pages, 500 copies

Alvarado de Ricord, Elsie; Lucha Corpi, and Concha Michel. FIREFLIGHT
Berkeley: Oyez, 1976
Paperback, 109 pages, 1000 copies. Translated by Catherine Rodriguez-Nieto.

Charters, Samuel. IN LAGOS
Berkeley: Oyez, 1976
First edition, paperback, 15 pages, 600 copies.

Everson, William. RIVER-ROOT
Berkeley: Oyez, 1976
A. First edition, paperback, 45 pages, 1000 copies
B. First edition, hardcover, 45 pages 250 copies, numbered and signed

Garcia, Luis. BEANS
Berkeley: Oyez, 1976
First edition, paperback, 67 pages, 1000 copies

Morrison, Rusane. SUMMER PATCHWORK
Berkeley: Oyez, 1976
First edition, paperback, 24 pages, 500 copies

Meltzer, David. TWO-WAY MIRROR
Berkeley: Oyez, 1977
A. First edition, paperback, 149 pages, 1000 copies
B. First edition, hardcover, 149 pages, 500 copies

Canan, Janine. OF YOUR SEED
Berkeley: Oyez, 1977
Paperback, 60 pages, 500 copies.

Clark, Naomi. BURGLARIES AND CELEBRATIONS
Berkeley: Oyez, 1977
A. First edition, paperback, 80 pages, 750 copies.
B. First edition, hardcover, 80 pages, 250 copies.
Foreword by William Everson.

Dean, Robert. DINNER AT MME
Berkeley: Oyez, 1977
A. First edition, paperback, 40 pages, 1000 copies.
B. First edition, hardcover, 40 pages, 50 copies, numbered and signed

Gitin, David. LEGWORK
Berkeley: Oyez, 1977
A. First edition, paperback, 59 pages, 950 copies
B. First edition, hardcover, 59 pages, 50 copies, numbered and signed

Lummis, Dayton. CLOSETS OF MERCY
Berkeley: Oyez, 1977
First edition, paperback, 33 pages, 500 copies

Korn, Richard. THE JUDGMENT OF THE CONDOR
Berkeley: Oyez, 1978
A. First edition, paperback, 80 pages, 500 copies
B. First edition, hardcover, 80 pages, 250 copies

Korte, Mary Norbert. MAMMALS OF DELIGHT
Berkeley: Oyez, 1978
A. First edition, paperback, 37 pages, 550 copies
B. First edition, hardcover, 37 pages, 50 copies, numbered and signed

Charters, Samuel. OF THOSE WHO DIED
Berkeley: Oyez, 1980
First edition, paperback, 22 pages, 1000 copies.

Everson, William. EARTH POETRY
Berkeley: Oyez, 1980
A. First edition, paperback, 251 pages, 1000 copies
b. First edition, hardcover, 251 pages, 500 copies

Hiller, Tobey. CROSSINGS
Berkeley: Oyez, 1980
First edition, paperback, 17 pages, 600 copies

Korn, Richard and Brugnola Orlanda. JOB
Berkeley: Oyez, 1981
First edition, paperback, 22 pages, 1000 copies

Hiller, Tobey. CERTAIN WEATHERS
Berkeley: Oyez, 1987
First edition, paperback, 62 pages, 500 copies

Charters, Samuel. A COUNTRY YEAR
Berkeley: Oyez, 1992
First edition, paperback, 140 pages, 1000 copies.

 

Four Seasons Foundation

Donald Merriam Allen (Iowa, 1912 – San Francisco, August 29, 2004) was an influential editor, publisher, and translator of contemporary American literature. He is perhaps best known for his project The New American Poetry 1945-1960 (Grove Press, 1960), a seminal anthology that introduced a revolutionary new generation of postwar poetry that was to change the course of American literature.

In 1960, Allen moved from New York to San Francisco, where he established Grey Fox and the Four Seasons Foundation, two significant literary presses where he continued to publish work from Beat, San Francisco Renaissance, Black Mountain, and New York School writers, as well as younger new voices.  Among the authors were Richard Brautigan, Robert Creeley, Edward Dorn, Robert Duncan, Jack Kerouac, Joanne Kyger, Philip Lamantia, Frank O’Hara, Charles Olson, John Rechy, Aaron Shurin, Gary Snyder, Jack Spicer, Lew Welch, and Philip Whalen.


Four Seasons Foundation, A Preliminary Checklist

Welch, Lew. STEP OUT ONTO THE PLANET
San Francisco: Four Seasons Foundation 1963
First edition, broadside, 9.5″ x 12.5″, 300 copies, signed. Printed for the occasion of a reading at Longshoreman’s Hall, San Francisco, June 12, 1964

Whalen, Philip. THREE MORNINGS
San Francisco: Four Seasons Foundation 1963
First edition, broadside, 9.5″ x 12.5″, 300 copies, signed. Printed for the occasion of a reading at Longshoreman’s Hall, San Francisco, June 12, 1964

Snyder, Gary. NANAO KNOWS
San Francisco: Four Seasons Foundation 1964
First edition, broadside, 9.5″ x 12.5″, 300 copies, signed. Printed for the occasion of a reading at Longshoreman’s Hall, San Francisco, June 12, 1964

Olson, Charles. A BIBLIOGRAPHY ON AMERICA FOR ED DORN
San Francisco: Four Seasons Foundation (1964)
First edition, saddle-stapled wrappers, 6″ x 8″, 16 pages.
Published as Writing 1

Dorn, Edward; Rumaker, Michael; Tallman, Warren. PROSE 1
San Francisco: Four Seasons Foundation, 1964
First edition, saddle-stapled wrappers, 36 pages
Published as Writing 2

[anthology]. 12 Poets & 1 Painter
San Francisco: Four Seasons Foundation, 1964
First edition, saddle-stapled wrappers, 32 pages. Contributors include: LeRoi Jones, Joanne Kyger, Robert Creeley, Denise Levertov, Lawrence Ferlinghetti, Robert Duncan, Gary Snyder, Lew Welch, Allen Ginsberg, Charles Olson, Max Finstein, Bruce Boyd, and Jess Collins
Published as Writing 3

Loewinsohn, Ron. AGAINST THE SILENCES TO COME
San Francisco: Four Seasons Foundation, 1965
A. stapled wrappers, 7.75″ x 9.75″, (16 pages), 1000 copies
B. stapled wrappers, 7.75″ x 9.75″, (16 pages), 26 lettered and signed copies
Published as Writing 4

Kyger, Joanne. THE TAPESTRY AND THE WEB
San Francisco: Four Seasons Foundation, 1965
A. paperback, 61 pages
B. hardcover, 61 pages
Published as Writing 5

Olson, Charles. PROPRIOCEPTION
San Francisco: Four Seasons Foundation, 1965
First edition, saddle-stapled wrappers, 18 pages
Published as Writing 6

Snyder, Gary. RIPRAP & COLD MOUNTAIN POEMS
San Francisco: Four Seasons Foundation, 1965
stapled wrappers, 7.75″ x 9.75″, 50 pages
Published as Writing 7

Welch, Lew. HERMIT POEMS
San Francisco: Four Seasons Foundation, 1965
A. First edition, saddle-stapled wrappers, 16 pages, 974 copies
B. First edition, saddle-stapled wrappers, 16 pages, 26 numbered and signed copies
Published as Writing 8

Snyder, Gary. SIX SECTIONS FROM MOUNTAINS AND RIVERS WITHOUT END
San Francisco: Four Seasons Foundation, 1965
stapled wrappers, 42 pages, 1000 copies
Published as Writing 9

Koller, James. THE DOGS & OTHER DARK WOODS
San Francisco: Four Seasons Foundation, 1966
A. stapled wrappers, 33 pages, 1000 copies
B. hardcover, 33 pages, 26 copies, numbered signed
Published as Writing 10

McClure, Michael. LOVE LION BOOK
San Francisco: Four Seasons Foundation, 1966
A. stapled wrappers, 24 pages, 1000 copies
B. hardcover, 24 pages, 40 copies, numbered, signed
Published as Writing 11

Writing 12 [?]

Olson, Charles. STOCKING CAP: A STORY
San Francisco: Four Seasons Foundation, 1966
stapled wrappers, 15 pages
Published as Writing 13

Brautigan, Richard. TROUT FISHING IN AMERICA
San Francisco: Four Seasons Foundation, 1967
paperback
Published as Writing 14

Hadley, Drummond. THE WEBBING
San Francisco: Four Seasons Foundation, 1967
stapled wrappers, 52 pages, 500 copies
Published as Writing 15

McClure, Michael. THE SERMONS OF JEAN HARLOW & THE CURSES OF BILLY THE KID
San Francisco: Four Seasons Foundation with Dave Haselwood Books, 1968
A. First edition, saddle-stapled wrappers, 1200 copies

Olson, Charles. CAUSAL MYTHOLOGY
San Francisco: Four Seasons Foundation, 1969
A. paperback, 40 pages
B. hardcover, 40 pages
Published as Writing 16

Blaser, Robin. CUPS
San Francisco: Four Seasons Foundation, 1968
A. stapled wrappers, 24 pages, 1000 copies
B. hardcover, 24 pages, 40 copies, numbered, signed
Published as Writing 17

McClure, Michael. GHOST TANTRAS
San Francisco: Four Seasons Foundation, 1969
paperback

Writing 18 [?]

Upton, Charles. TIME RAID
San Francisco: Four Seasons Foundation, 1969
stapled wrappers, 30 pages
Published as Writing 19

Brautigan, Richard. THE PILL VERSUS THE SPRINGHILL MINE DISASTER
San Francisco: Four Seasons Foundation, 1968
A. paperback, 108 pages
B. hardcover, 108 pages, 50 copies, numbered, signed
Published as Writing 20

Brautigan, Richard. IN WATERMELON SUGAR
San Francisco: Four Seasons Foundation, 1968
A. paperback, 138 pages
B. hardcover, 138 pages, 50 copies, numbered, signed
Published as Writing 21

Creeley, Robert. A Quick Graph: Collected Notes & Essays
San Francisco: Four Seasons Foundation, 1969
A. paperback, 365 pages, 1000 copies
B. hardcover, 365 pages
C. hardcover in dust jacket, 365 pages
Published as Writing 22.

Creeley, Robert. THE CHARM: EARLY AND UNCOLLECTED POEMS
San Francisco: Four Seasons Foundation, 1969
A. paperback, 97 pages
B. hardcover, 97 pages
C. hardcover, 97 pages, 100 copies, numbered, signed
Published as Writing 23

Whalen, Philip. SEVERANCE PAY
San Francisco: Four Seasons Foundation, 1970
A. paperback, 51 pages
B. paperback, 51 pages, 50 copies, numbered, signed
Published as Writing 24

Lamantia , Philip. THE BLOOD OF THE AIR
San Francisco: Four Seasons Foundation, 1970
A. paperback, 45 pages
B. hardcover, 45 pages, 50 copies, numbered, signed
Published as Writing 25

Millward, Pamela. MOTHER: A NOVEL OF REVOLUTION
San Francisco: Four Seasons Foundation, 1970
A. paperback, 57 pages
Published as Writing 26

Olson, Charles. POETRY AND TRUTH
San Francisco: Four Seasons Foundation, 1971
A. paperback, 75 pages
B. hardcover, 75 pages
Published as Writing 27

Schaff, David. THE MOON BY DAY
San Francisco: Four Seasons Foundation, 1971
paperback, 114 pages
Published as Writing 28

Herd, Dale. EARLY MORNING WIND AND OTHER STORIES
San Francisco: Four Seasons Foundation, 1972
paperback
Published as Writing 29

Snyder, Gary. MANZANITA
San Francisco: Four Seasons Foundation, 1972
paperback

Creeley, Robert. CONTEXTS OF POETRY: INTERVIEWS 1961-1971
San Francisco: Four Seasons Foundation, 1973
paperback, 214 pages
Published as Writing 30

Olson, Charles. ADDITIONAL PROSE: A BIBLIOGRAPHY ON AMERICA, PROPRIOCEPTION, & OTHER NOTES & ESSAYS
Bolinas: Four Seasons Foundation, 1974
A. paperback, 109 pages
B. hardcover, 109 pages
Published as Writing 31

Lamantia, Philip. TOUCH OF THE MARVELOUS
Bolinas: Four Seasons Foundation, 1974
A. paperback, 47 pages
B. hardcover, 47 pages
Published as Writing 32

Whalen, Philip. THE KINDNESS OF STRANGERS: POEMS 1969-1974
Bolinas: Four Seasons Foundation, 1976
paperback, 57 pages
Published as Writing 33

Dorn, Edward. THE COLLECTED POEMS 1956-1974
Bolinas: Four Seasons Foundation, 1975
A. paperback, 277 pages
B. hardcover, 277 pages
Published as Writing 34

Olson, Charles. MUTHOLOGOS; COLLECTED LETTERS & INTERVIEWS 
Bolinas: Four Seasons Foundation, 1979
A. paperback, 230 pages, 2 volumes
B. hardcover, 230 pages, 2 volumes
Published as Writing 35

Olson, Charles. THE FIERY HUNT AND OTHER PLAYS
Bolinas: Four Seasons Foundation, 1977
paperback, 125 pages
Published as Writing 36

Whalen, Philip. OFF THE WALL: INTERVIEWS WITH PHILIP WHALEN
Bolinas: Four Seasons Foundation, 1978
paperback, 88 pages
Published as Writing 37

Dorn, Edward. INTERVIEWS
Bolinas: Four Seasons Foundation, 1980
paperback, 117 pages
Published as Writing 38

Creeley, Robert. WAS THAT A REAL POEM & OTHER ESSAYS
Bolinas: Four Seasons Foundation 1979
A. paperback, 149 pages
B. hardcover, 149 pages
Published as Writing 39

Dorn, Edward. VIEWS
Bolinas: Four Seasons Foundation, 1980
A. paperback, 142 pages
B. hardcover, 142 pages
Published as Writing 40

Gluck, Robert. ELEMENTS OF A COFFEE SERVICE
San Francisco: Four Seasons Foundation, 1982
paperback, 97 pages
Published as Writing 41

Whalen, Philip. HEAVY BREATHING: POEMS 1967-1980
San Francisco: Four Seasons Foundation, 1983
paperback, 207 pages
Published as Writing 42

Shurin, Aaron. THE GRACES
San Francisco: Four Seasons Foundation, 1983
paperback, 72 pages


References consulted:

Bohn, Dave. OYEZ: THE AUTHORIZED CHECKLIST
Berkeley: n.p., 1997

Hawley, Bob. CHECKLISTS OF SEPARATE PUBLICATIONS OF POETS AT THE FIRST BERKELEY POETRY CONFERENCE 1965
Berkeley: Oyez/Cody’s, 1965

Johnston, Alastair. A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE AUERHAHN PRESS & ITS SUCCESSOR DAVE HASELWOOD BOOKS
Berkeley: Poltroon Press, 1976

Lepper, Gary M. A BIBLIOGRAPHICAL INTRODUCTION TO SEVENTY-FIVE MODERN AMERICAN AUTHORS
Berkeley: Serendipity Books, 1976

Ark

“ARK II, MOBY I, is the successor to THE ARK, a collection of verse, drawings, and articles published in San Francisco in 1947. This was probably the first coherent expression of a new aesthetic and social freedom, which as the years have gone by is now seen to be the characteristic approach of the post war II generation.

“This new gathering has concentrated on poetry and drawings because we feel that the social message has long since been taken for granted by those likely to be interested.”

-From the introduction to ARK II, MOBY I


THE ARK
San Francisco, Spring 1947
First edition, stapled sheets glued into printed wrappers, 72 pages including Contents and Notes on Contributors, letterpress printed, artwork by Ronald Bladen.

Contributors:
Patchen, Kenneth. Excerpt from SLEEPERS AWAKE. page 5
Boodson, Alison. Three Poems. page 12
Rexroth, Kenneth. Advent 1946. page 14
Laughlin IV, James. Now Love Speaks. page 15
Eberhart, Richard. At the End of War. page 16
Woodcock, George. What is Anarchism? page 19
Duncan, Robert. Four Poems. page 23
Goodman, Paul. The “Horace” of Corneille. page 32
Everson, William. If I Hide My Hand. page 38
Cummings, E. E. Four Poems. page 40
Hennacy, Ammon A. Christian Anarchism. page 42
Russell, Sanders. Six Poems. page 48
Lamantia, Philip. Another Autumn Coming. page 51
Stock, Robert. Poem on Holy Saturday. page 52
Rambo, Christopher. Peace To the Doomed Idol. page 54
Williams, William Carlos. Inquest. page 55
Russell, Sanders. E. E. Cummings and the Idea of Actuality. page 59
Duncan, Robert. Reviewing View, an Attack. page 62
Parkinson, Thomas. September Elegy. page 68
Moore, Richard. A Mediation. page 72 


ARK II, MOBY I
San Francisco, 1956-1957
First edition, stapled wrappers, 46 pages including Notes on Contributors and advertisements for The Pocket Poets Series, Jargon, and Black Mountain Review, edited by Michael McClure and James Harmon, letterpress printed at the Press of Villiers Publications, artwork by Ronald Bladen..

Contributors:
Levertov, Denise. Central Park, Winter, After Sunset. Page 1
Levertov, Denise. A Song. Page 1
Levertov, Denise. The Springtime. Page 2
Levertov, Denise. The Third Dimension. Page 3
Levertov, Denise. Laying the Dust. Page 4
McClure, Michael. Canoe: Explication. Page 4
McClure, Michael. Logos: Knout. Page 5
Zukofsky, Louis. Michtam. Page 6
Zukofsky, Louis. George Washington. Page 7
Rexroth, Kenneth. 140 Syllables. Page 8
Russell, Sanders. Two Poems. Page 8
Duncan, Robert. The Law I Love is Major Mover. Page 10
Olson, Charles. As the Dead Prey Upon Us. Page 12
Kerouac, Jack. 230th Chorus from MEXICO CITY BLUES. Page 19
Ginsberg, Allen. The Trembling of the Veil. Page 20
Snyder, Gary. Groves, 12 fromMYTHS & TEXTS. Page27
Williams, Jonathan. The Switch Blade (or, John’s Other Wife). Page 27
Williams, Jonathan. Catullus: Carmen XVI. Page 28
Williams, Jonathan. Greque Musique d’Ameublement (Bar-Fixtures Dept.). Page 28
Perkoff, Stuart. The Recluses. Page 29
Creeley, Robert. Ballad of the Despairing Husband. Page 30
Dorn, Edward. The Revival. Page 32
Dorn, Edward. Lines from a Sitting Position. Page 32
Dorn, Edward. The Common Site. Page 33
Patchen, Kenneth. Another Hamlet is Heard From. Page 34
Patchen, Kenneth. The Most Hen. Page 35
Cox, Paul. Reclame. Page 35
Collins, Jess & Christian Morgenstern. Gallowbrother’s Song to Sophie; The Hangman’s Maiden. Page 36
Collins, Jess & Christian Morgenstern. Moonmatters. Page 36
Collins, Jess & Christian Morgenstern. Goat and Stalker. Page 37
Collins, Jess & Christian Morgenstern. How the Gallowschild Remembers the Names of the Months. Page 37
Whalen, Philip. Martyrdom of Two Pagans. Page 38
Ferlinghetti, Lawrence. Untitled: “Constantly risking absurdity…”. Page 39
Eberhart, Richard. Clocks. Page 40
Eberhart, Richard. Snow. Page 40
Hawthorne, Clive. Four Poems and Notes. Page 40
Harmon, James. Silver Fox Island. Page 42
Harmon, James. Hawk Inlet. Page 42
Harmon, James. The Wind on Market Street. Page 43
Harmon, James. For H. H. Page 44
Turnbull, Gael. A Self-Portrait. Page 44
Turnbull, Gael. Why Don’t You Answer? Page 45


ARK III
San Francisco, Winter 1957
First edition, stapled wrappers, 48 pages including Notes on Contributors and advertisements for New Directions, and City Lights Books, edited by James Harmon, letterpress printed at the Press of Villiers Publications, artwork by Ronald Bladen.

Contributors:
Zukofsky, Louis. Barely and Widely. Page 3
Parkinson, Thomas. Two Vineyards. Page 4
Rexroth, Kenneth. Untitled: “I am fifty-two years old…”. Page 6
Hawthorne, Clive. Greeting, Sweets, The Dog. Page 7
Hawthorne, Clive. Art Blakey. Page 7
Hawthorne, Clive. Love Song. Page 8
Hawthorne, Clive. Night. Page 8
Hawthorne, Clive. Poem. Page 8
Fall, Donald. Caprice. Page 9
Fall, Donald. Eddy Street, San Francisco, 10.30 A.M. Page 9
Fall, Donald. To H. L. Page 10
Fall, Donald. A Respectful Statement on Sex in Unsettled Times. Page 10
Fall, Donald. Postcard. Page 10
Fall, Donald. Abstract Celebration. Page 11
Roskolenko, Harry. Images of Disorder. Page 11
Roskolenko, Harry. My Father’s Profession. Page 12
Roskolenko, Harry. The Streets of Home. Page 12
Roskolenko, Harry. Charlie. Page 13
Boyd, Bruce. Nocturne for the West. Page 13
Perkoff, Stuart Z. Utter Fascinations. Page 14
Sanzenbach, Nicole. Consider Children in the Street. Page 16
Sanzenbach, Nicole. To Allen. Page 16
Whalen, Philip. A Dim View of Berkeley in the Spring. Page 17
Snyder, Gary. What I Think About When I Meditate. Page 18.
Ginsberg, Allen. An Atypical Affair. Page 19
Ginsberg, Allen. A Typical Affair. Page 20
Ginsberg, Allen. How Come He Got Canned at the Ribbon Factory. Page 21
Kerouac, Jack. San Francisco Blues (two excerpts). Page 21
Margolis, William J. Use Your Imagination (no one else does). Page 22
Ferlinghetti, Lawrence. Frame This Picture. Page 23
Wallick, Philip. My Apartment is a Pastoral Apartment. Page 25
Maclaine, Christopher. Three. Page 26
DeJong, David Cornel. Hour of Damnation. Page 27
DeJong, David Cornel. White Collar Class. Page 27
Orlovitz, Gil. The Beggar. Page 28
Lifton, Mitchell. Song. Page 28
Galler, David. Thoughts in the Ward. Page 30
Wernham, Guy. Nature Loves to Hide Herself. Page 32
Wernham, Guy. L’Homme Arraignee. Page 32
Larsen, Carl. The Work of Hands. Page 34
Eberhart, Richard. Hockey. Page 35
Eberhart, Richard. Dogs. Page 35
Uronivitz, Laura. How St George Met The Dragon. Page 36
Gilbert, Jack. Who Cried Love. Page 37
Romero, Idell Tarlow. Message on a Tree Trunk. Page 37
Romero, Idell Tarlow. Written on a Curbstone. Page 38
Corman, Cid. Agamemnon. Page 38
Turnbull, Gael. October. Page 39
Turnbull, Gael. The War. Page 40
Lipton, Lawrence. End of The Nile. Page 41

The San Francisco Renaissance

[excerpt from Steve Clay and Rodney Phillips’ A SECRET LOCATION ON THE LOWER EAST SIDE. Granary Books, 1998]

The San Francisco Renaissance, a timeline of events

1951

1953

      • City Lights Bookstore opens in North Beach

1955

1956

      • Allen Ginsberg’s Howl published by City Lights

1957

      • Howl confiscated by customs; Lawrence Ferlinghetti and Shigeyoshi Murao arrested
      • Jack Spicer‘s Poetry as Magic Workshop, San Francisco Public Library
      • Charles Olson reads and lectures in San Francisco
      • First book from White Rabbit Press, Steve Jonas’s Love, the Poem, the Sea & Other Pieces Examined

1958

1959

      • Philip Lamantia‘s Ekstasis published by Auerhahn Press
      • Bob Kaufman’s The Abomunist Manifesto published by City Lights
      • J, edited by Jack Spicer
      • Cid Corman’s Origin Press publishes Gary Snyder’s first book, Riprap

1960

      • Gary Snyder’s Myths and Texts published by Corinth Books
      • Lew Welch‘s Wobbly Rock published by Auerhahn Press
      • William S. Burroughs and Brion Gysin’s The Exterminator published by Auerhahn Press

1962

      • White Rabbit Press revived by Graham Mackintosh with Spicer’s LAMENT FOR THE MAKERS, which was published in a small edition of less than 100 copies and illustrated by Mackintosh

1963

      • Vancouver Poetry Conference

1964

      • Open Space publishes Robin Blaser’s first book, The Moth Poem

1965

1966

      • Lenore Kandel’s The Love Book published by Stolen Paper Editions
      • Philip Lamantia‘s Touch of the Marvelous published by Oyez Press
      • John Martin’s Black Sparrow Press begins in Los Angeles

1967

      • The Pacific Nation, edited by Robin Blaser in Vancouver

1968

      • Janine Pommy-Vega’s Poems to Fernando published by City Lights

1969

      • Gary Snyder’s book of essays Earth House Hold published by New Directions

1975

      • Jack Spicer‘s Collected Books published by Black Sparrow

 

In San Francisco, the commingling of several activities helped to prepare the ground for the remarkable literary explosion that was soon to take place. The Libertarian Circle held regular literary events; poet members included Kenneth Rexroth, Muriel Rukeyser, William Everson, Robert Duncan, Jack Spicer, and Thomas Parkinson. Rexroth also ran a literary program on KPFA, the country’s first listener-sponsored radio station. Madeline Gleason (assisted by Rexroth and Duncan) founded the San Francisco Poetry Center, housed at San Francisco State College and managed by Ruth Witt-Diamant. The magazines Circle, Ark, City Lights, Goad, Inferno, and Golden Goose helped to consolidate the growing literary underground.

The famous reading at Six Gallery on Fillmore Street was publicized by Allen Ginsberg (via a hundred mailed postcards and a few flyers) thus:

mcclure_sixgallery

On October 7, 1955, in a room measuring 20 x 25 feet with a dirt floor, Ginsberg “read Howl and started an epoch.”(1) Gary Snyder, Philip Lamantia, Michael McClure, and Philip Whalen shared the bill and, by all reports, also read brilliantly. Aside from Rexroth and Whalen, all the readers were in their twenties. Again, in the words of Kenneth Rexroth, “What started in SF and spread from there across the world was public poetry, the return of a tribal, preliterate relationship between poet and audience.”(1)

These events, along with the flourishing of Lawrence Ferlinghetti’s City Lights Bookshop and publishing house, helped to inaugurate and consolidate what has become known as the San Francisco Renaissance. City Lights published Howl in 1956 (Ferlinghetti asked Ginsberg for the manuscript the same night it was read at the Six Gallery) as Number Four in the Pocket Poets Series. (It had been preceded by an extremely rare mimeographed edition, typed by Martha Rexroth and mimeographed by none other than Robert Creeley. Ginsberg’s Siesta in Xbalba had been mimeographed by the man himself on a freighter in the Alaskan Ocean.) Among the audience members that night was one who added his own chant, the young novelist Jack Kerouac, whose On the Road, published in 1957, was to make this reading and its readers legendary. It was also in 1957 that Charles Olson, rector of the experimental Black Mountain College, visited San Francisco and gave a series of lectures on Alfred North Whitehead at the Portrero Hill home of Robert Duncan and his companion, the painter Jess Collins. Among the attendees at the lectures were, of course, Duncan himself, but also Michael McClure, Gary Snyder’s Reed College friend Philip Whalen, Jack Spicer, and Richard Duerden. The same year saw the “San Francisco Scene” issue of Evergreen Review. Poet Helen Adam’s flamboyant 1961 ballad opera, entitled San Francisco’s Burning, epitomized the time, outrageous both aesthetically and socially. Other writers associated with the San Francisco Renaissance included James Broughton, Lew Welch, Ron Loewinsohn, Madeline Gleason, David Meltzer, Kirby Doyle, and Lenore Kandel.

Experimentation with forms of literature and lifestyle had long been an attractive characteristic of life in San Francisco. But the tolerance felt in Northern California was not as evident in Los Angeles. In 1957, an exhibit of work by assemblage artist Wallace Berman at the Ferus Gallery was closed by the Los Angeles Police Department, and Berman was jailed on charges of exhibiting “lewd and lascivious pornographic art.” Found guilty (by the same judge who ruled against Henry Miller), Berman and family left L.A. for San Francisco that year. Berman edited and published a fascinating assemblage magazine called Semina. After the raid of his exhibit at Ferus, he announced in Semina 2 that “I will continue to print Semina from locations other than this city of degen-erate angels.” Berman’s friend, artist George Herms, designed his own books and provided the artwork for others, including Diane di Prima. Herms had likewise found the political climate in L.A. intolerable and had preceded the Bermans to Northern California.

In the mid-1960s, John Martin’s Black Sparrow Press began publishing broadsides and booklets and has, over the years, published a wide variety of experimental and alternative poetry and prose, including work by Duncan, Olson, Spicer, and Creeley among very many others. 

Because of the previous associations of house printer/designer Graham Mackintosh, Black Sparrow is linked to earlier literary small presses of Northern California, particularly White Rabbit Press (at the urging of Jack Spicer, Mackintosh resurrected the press in 1962, printing Spicer’s own Lament for the Makers); Robert Hawley’s Oyez Press (Mackintosh had printed its first book in 1963); and Dave Haselwood’s Auerhahn Press, which flourished during the 1960s and early 70s in San Francisco. Auerhahn published a wide variety of well-designed books, including The Exterminator, an early example of William S. Burroughs and Brion Gysin’s cut-up technique, in 1960. Auerhahn also published John Wieners’s first book, The Hotel Wentley Poems. Oyez published many memorable volumes including Philip Lamantia‘s Touch of the Marvelous. Joe Dunn’s White Rabbit Press, which had begun publishing in 1957 with Steve Jonas’s rough work Love, the Poem, the Sea & Other Pieces Examined, produced books somewhat less elegant than Auerhahn’s or Oyez’s but with a beauty all their own.

The editorial genius behind White Rabbit was the irrepressible Jack Spicer, who published his own remarkable mimeographed magazine, J. Spicer emphasized the inclusion of writers who were not well published elsewhere, and accepted contributions for consideration in a box that was kept in one of three bars in the North Beach area of San Francisco. J is representative of the best of the mimeograph revolution: an uncompromising editorial stance combined with a playful, even colorful, formal character thanks to Fran Herndon, who edited the artwork for the magazine. Spicer’s model for J was Beatitude, which had begun publication in San Francisco slightly before J. And a recalcitrant model it was, since Spicer was not a fan of the Beats and carried on a running war against Ferlinghetti in particular. He imagined Ferlinghetti had become commercial and financially successful, thereby, in Spicer’s mind, “selling out” to the establishment. Magnificently consistent with his principles, Spicer never copyrighted his own work, anticipating the “no copyright, no nuthin” statements of Tom Clark’s London-based Once Series. The performative aspects of Spicer’s poetics as well as his personality also prefigured the rise of poetry readings in the 1950s, particularly those sponsored by the Poetry Center at San Francisco State, which featured mimeographed programs and booklets printing selections from the poets who were reading, among them, Charles Olson, Denise Levertov, and Louis Zukofsky.

Although Spicer’s J didn’t publish the works of “established” poets, Spicer did include the work of Robert Duncan in four issues of his magazine. Duncan and Jess Collins (whose work adorned the cover of many magazines and books of the period, including Open Space, Caterpillar, and The Floating Bear) were important influences on the literary and artistic scene in San Francisco in the 60s. Duncan’s early work was published in Berkeley or North Carolina (his Song of the Border-Guard was published by the Black Mountain College Press with a cover by Cy Twombly in 1952). Other earlier works were multilithed (Fragments of a Disordered Devotionin San Francisco in 1952) or mimeographed (the first hundred copies of Faust Foutu were mimeographed by Duncan himself, and the next 150 or so of one act of the play were multilithed by Joe Dunn of White Rabbit Press at his place of employment, the Greyhound Bus offices in San Francisco). The multilithed third edition of Faust Foutu, although also produced by Dunn, was published under Duncan’s own imprint, Enkidu Surrogate, of Stinson Beach. Duncan’s work was published by an amazing variety and number of publishers, including Oyez, Auerhahn, White Rabbit, Black Sparrow, Divers Press, Jargon, Perishable Press, City Lights, Grove Press, New Directions, and Scribners.

Slightly outside the Spicer circle (although some of his own poems were published in J) was Donald Allen, who, after the publication of The New American Poetry, 1945-1960 and before his removal to New York, established the Four Seasons Foundation in San Francisco, which published the work of a number of the writers from the anthology, including Charles Olson, Ed Dorn, Ron Loewinsohn, Philip Lamantia, Michael McClure, Joanne Kyger, Robin Blaser, and Robert Creeley. Among the early Four Seasons publications were two important works by poet Gary Snyder (the Reed College roommate of Lew Welch and Philip Whalen and the “Japhy Ryder” of Kerouac’s The Dharma Bums): Six Sections from Rivers and Mountains Without End and Riprap and Cold Mountain Poems, both published in 1965. Riprap, it should be noted, was originally published in 1959 as a booklet by Cid Corman’s Origin Press. Snyder’s Myths and Textswas published in 1960 by Corinth Books. Snyder was out of the country on an extended stay in Japan, and the text used for the Corinth publication was probably from a manuscript that LeRoi Jones had hand-copied from one that Robert Creeley had received from Snyder in 1955 or 1956. Snyder’s poetry was extremely popular in the 60s and was often used as text for broadsides by small presses, particularly those whose owners were ecologically minded. For instance, Snyder’s poem “Four Changes” was published in 1969 by Earth Read Out, a Berkeley environmental protection group, as four mimeographed pages, as well as in a folded, printed version in 200,000 copies by environmentalist Alan Shapiro for free distribution to schools and citizens’ groups.

Literary scenes with strong affiliations to the New American Poetry were in evidence elsewhere in California — most notably Bolinas in the 1970s, when that somewhat remote hippie village north of San Francisco became home to many poets. In particular, the transplanted easterner and Poetry Project veteran Bill Berkson and his press Big Sky flourished there in the decade, publishing both a magazine and a series of books. Bolinas residents of the period also included Robert Creeley, Bobbie Louise Hawkins, David Meltzer, Lewis Warsh, Tom Clark, Lewis MacAdams, Philip Whalen, Aram Saroyan, Joanne Kyger, Jim Carroll, and Duncan McNaughton, among others. Ted Berrigan, Alice Notley, and Joe Brainard were among many occasional visitors, with Joe Brainard’s Bolinas Journal providing an interesting record of one such extended stay.


(1) Kenneth Rexroth. AMERICAN POETRY IN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY (New York: Herder and Herder, 1971), p. 141.

The Jargon Society

The First 50, a checklist

The following list contains only those titles appearing in the sequence beginning with Jonathan Williams’ Garbage Litters the Iron Face of the Sun’s Child (Jargon 1). Jargon Society postcards, broadsides, billboards and other ephemeral items are not included.


1. Williams, Jonathan. GARBAGE LITTERS THE IRON FACE OF THE SUN’S CHILD
jargon_garbagelitters
(San Francisco): Jargon, 1951
First edition, 4″ x 13″ broadside folded twice to make a 4″ x 5″ leaflet, engraving by David Ruff, 50 copies. Printed by David Ruff at The Print Workshop. Published as Jargon 1. (Jaffe A4)


2. Oppenheimer, Joel. THE DANCER
jargon_dancerHighlands: Jargon, 1951
First edition, illustration by Robert Rauschenberg, 150 copies. Printed at the The Sad Devil Press, Black Mountain College. Published as Jargon 2.



3. Williams, Jonathan. RED / GRAY 
Black Mountain, 1952
Drawings by Paul Ellsworth, 100 copies.

4. Kalos, Victor. THE DOUBLE-BACKED BEAST
Black Mountain, 1952
Drawings by Dan Rice, 25 copies.

5. Williams, Jonathan. FOUR STOPPAGES / A CONFIGURATION
Stuttgart, 1953
Drawings by Charles Oscar, 200 copies.

6. Patchen, Kenneth. FABLES & OTHER LITTLES TALES
Karlsruhe, 1953
450 copies.

7. Olson, Charles. THE MAXIMUS POEMS / 1-10
Suttgart, 1953
Calligraphy by Jonathan Williams, 300 copies, 9″ x 12″, 46 pages plus prospectus by Creeley.

8. Creeley, Robert. THE IMMORAL PROPOSITION
Karlsruhe, 1953
Drawings by René Laubiès, 200 copies, 15 pages.

9. Olson, Charles. THE MAXIMUS POEMS / 11-22
Suttgart, 1956
Calligraphy by Jonathan Williams, 350 copies.

10. Creeley, Robert. ALL THAT IS LOVELY IN MEN
jargon_allthatAsheville: Jonathan Williams – Publisher, 1955
First edition, perfect bound in illustrated wrappers, drawings by Dan Rice, photograph by Jonathan Williams, 6″ x 8″, 44 pages, 200 copies. Signed by Creeley and Rice on the colophon. Printed by the Biltmore Press. Published as Jargon 10. (Novik A6)

11. Patchen, Kenneth. POEM-SCAPES
Highlands, 1958.

12. Zukofsky, Louis. A TEST OF POETRY
New York, 1964.

13a. Williams, Jonathan. AMEN / HUZZA / SELAH
Black Mountain, 1960
“A Preface?” by Louis Zukofsky. Photographs by Jonathan Williams.

13b. Williams, Jonathan. ELEGIES AND CELEBRATIONS 
Highlands, 1962
Preface by Robert Duncan. Photographs by Aaron Siskind and Jonathan Williams.

13c. Williams, Jonathan. JAMMIN’ THE GREEK SCENE 
Nota by Charles Olson. Drawings by Fielding Dawson. James Jaffe notes, “Approximately 4 proof copies were produced for a projected edition of 300 copies, but the book, with a cover designed by Fielding Dawson, was never published.” Karlsruhe, 1959.

14. Duncan, Robert. LETTERS: POEMS 1953-1956
Highlands, 1958
Drawings by Robert Duncan.

15. Zukofsky, Louis. SOME TIME
Sutgart, 1956
A song setting on the cover by Celia Zukofsky.

16. Oppenheimer, Joel. THE DUTIFUL SON
Highlands, 1957
Frontispiece by Joseph Fiore.

17. Perkoff, Stuart Z. THE SUICIDE ROOM 
Karlsruhe, 1956
Drawing by Fielding Dawson. Photograph by Charles Kessler.

18. Irving Layton. THE IMPROVED BINOCULARS
Highlands, 1956.
Introduction by William Carlos Williams. Second edition includes thirty additional poems.

19. Denise Levertov. OVERLAND TO THE ISLANDS
Highlands, 1958
Drawings by Al Kresch. Calligraphy by Jonathan Williams.

20. Michael McClure. PASSAGE
mcclure_passageBig Sur: Jonathan Williams – Publisher, 1956
First edition, sewn wrappers, 7.25? x 10.75?, 12 pages, 200 copies. Cover by Jonathan Williams. Published as Jargon 20. Printed by the Windhover Press. (Clements A1)



21. Kenneth Patchen. HURRAH FOR ANYTHING 
Highlands, 1957
Drawings by Kenneth Patchen.

22. Henry Miller. THE RED NOTEBOOK
Highlands, 1958
Drawings by Henry Miller. Phorograph by Wynn Bullock.

23. Mina Loy. LUNAR BAEDEKER AND TIME-TABLES
Highlands, 1958
Introductions by William Carlos Williams, Kenneth Rexroth and Denise Levertov. Drawings by Emerson Woelffer.

24. Charles Olson. THE MAXIMUS POEMS
New York, 1960
Photograph by Frederick Sommer. Published in association with Corinth Books.

25. Paul C. Metcalf. WILL WEST
Asheville, 1956.

26. Robert Creeley. THE WHIP
Highlands, 1957
Cover design by René Laubiès. Drawings by Kirsten Hoeck.

27. Peyton Houston. SONNET VARIATIONS
Highlands, 1962
Photograph by Henry Holmes Smith.

28. Irving Layton. A LAUGHTER IN THE MIND
Highlands, 1958
Photograph by Frederick Sommer.

29. Bob Brown. 1450-1950
New York, 1959
Photograph by Jonathan Williams.

30. Jonathan Williams. THE EMPIRE FINALS AT VERONA
Highlands, 1959
Drawings and collage by Fielding Dawson.

31. Williams, Jonathan ed. 14 POETS, 1 ARTIST 
New York, 1958
Drawings by Fielding Dawson. Contributors include Paul Blackburn, Bob Brown, Edward Dahlberg, Max Finstein, Allen Ginsberg, Paul Goodman, Denise Levertov, Walter Lowenfels, Edward Marshall, E.A. Navaretta, Joel Oppenheimer, Gilbert Sorrentino, Jonathan Williams and Louis Zukofsky.

32. Walter Lowenfels. SOME DEATHS
Highlands, 1964
Introduction by Jonathan Williams. Photographs by Robert Schiller.

33. Robert Creeley. A FORM OF WOMEN
New York, 1959
Photograph by Robert Schiller. Published in association with Corinth Books.

34. Bob Brown. THE SELECTED POEMS 
Introduction by Kay Boyle. Drawing by Reuben Nakian. Jargon 34 was projected but never published.

35. Irving Layton. A RED CARPET FOR THE SUN
Highlands, 1959
Photograph by Harry Callahan.

36. Larry Eigner. ON MY EYES
Highlands, 1960
Introduction by Denise Levertov. Photographs by Harry Callahan.

37. Russell Edson. WHAT A MAN CAN SEE
Highlands, 1969
Drawings by Ray Johnson.

38. Giuseppe Gioachino Belli. THE ROMAN SONNETS
Highlands, 1960
Translated by Harold Norse. Preface by William Carlos Williams. Introduction by Alberto Moravia. Cover by Ray Johnson. Collage by Jean-Jacques Lebel.

39. Jonathan Williams. LORD! LORD! LORD!: TRADITIONAL FUNERAL MUSIC
Highlands, 1959
Handset and printed “for the friends of the Jargon Press” by Igal Roodenko.

40. Gilbert Sorrentino. THE DARKNESS SURROUNDS US
Highlands, 1960
Introduction by Joel Oppenheimer. Collage and drawings by Fielding Dawson.

41. Lou Harrison. THREE CHORUSES FROM OPERA LIBRETTI
Highlands, 1960
Jargon’s Christmas in 1960

42. Ronald Johnson. A LINE OF POETRY, A ROW OF TREES
Highlands, 1964
Drawings by Thomas George. Printed by the Auerhahn Press, San Francisco.

43. Paul C. Metcalf. GENOA: A TELLING OF WONDERS
Highlands, 1965
Iconography by Jonathan Williams.

44. Buckminster Fuller. UNTITLED EPIC POEM ON THE HISTORY OF INDUSTRIALIZATION
Highlands, 1962
Introduction by Russell Davenport.

45. Sherwood Anderson. SIX MID-AMERICAN CHANTS
Highlands, 1964
Photographs by Art Sinsabaugh. Preface by Edward Dahlberg. Postface by Frederick Eckman

46. Guy Davenport. FLOWERS AND LEAVES
Highlands, 1966
Photograph by Ralph Eugene Meatyard.

47. Merle Hoyleman. Letters to Christopher
Introduction by George Marion O’Donnell. Jargon 47 was projected but never published.

48. Lorine Niedecker. TENDERNESS & GRISTLE: THE COLLECTED POEMS (1936-1966)
Penland, 1968
Plant prints by A. Doyle Moore.

49. Alfred Hamilton Starr. POEMS
Penland, 1970
Introduction by Geof Hewitt. Drawings by Philip Van Aver. Photograph by Simpson Kalisher.

50. Doris Ulmann. THE APPALACHIAN PHOTOGRAPHS OF DORIS ULMANN
Penland, 1971
Introduction by John Jacob Nies. Preface by Jonathan Williams.


References consulted:

A Jargon Society Checklist
Books & Company 1979

Jargon at Forty: 1951-1991
SUNY, 1991