Tag Archives: Richard Brautigan

The San Francisco Renaissance

[excerpt from Steve Clay and Rodney Phillips’ A SECRET LOCATION ON THE LOWER EAST SIDE. Granary Books, 1998]

The San Francisco Renaissance, a timeline of events

1951

1953

      • City Lights Bookstore opens in North Beach

1955

1956

      • Allen Ginsberg’s Howl published by City Lights

1957

      • Howl confiscated by customs; Lawrence Ferlinghetti and Shigeyoshi Murao arrested
      • Jack Spicer‘s Poetry as Magic Workshop, San Francisco Public Library
      • Charles Olson reads and lectures in San Francisco
      • First book from White Rabbit Press, Steve Jonas’s Love, the Poem, the Sea & Other Pieces Examined

1958

1959

      • Philip Lamantia‘s Ekstasis published by Auerhahn Press
      • Bob Kaufman’s The Abomunist Manifesto published by City Lights
      • J, edited by Jack Spicer
      • Cid Corman’s Origin Press publishes Gary Snyder’s first book, Riprap

1960

      • Gary Snyder’s Myths and Texts published by Corinth Books
      • Lew Welch‘s Wobbly Rock published by Auerhahn Press
      • William S. Burroughs and Brion Gysin’s The Exterminator published by Auerhahn Press

1962

      • White Rabbit Press revived by Graham Mackintosh with Spicer’s LAMENT FOR THE MAKERS, which was published in a small edition of less than 100 copies and illustrated by Mackintosh

1963

      • Vancouver Poetry Conference

1964

      • Open Space publishes Robin Blaser’s first book, The Moth Poem

1965

1966

      • Lenore Kandel’s The Love Book published by Stolen Paper Editions
      • Philip Lamantia‘s Touch of the Marvelous published by Oyez Press
      • John Martin’s Black Sparrow Press begins in Los Angeles

1967

      • The Pacific Nation, edited by Robin Blaser in Vancouver

1968

      • Janine Pommy-Vega’s Poems to Fernando published by City Lights

1969

      • Gary Snyder’s book of essays Earth House Hold published by New Directions

1975

      • Jack Spicer‘s Collected Books published by Black Sparrow

 

In San Francisco, the commingling of several activities helped to prepare the ground for the remarkable literary explosion that was soon to take place. The Libertarian Circle held regular literary events; poet members included Kenneth Rexroth, Muriel Rukeyser, William Everson, Robert Duncan, Jack Spicer, and Thomas Parkinson. Rexroth also ran a literary program on KPFA, the country’s first listener-sponsored radio station. Madeline Gleason (assisted by Rexroth and Duncan) founded the San Francisco Poetry Center, housed at San Francisco State College and managed by Ruth Witt-Diamant. The magazines Circle, Ark, City Lights, Goad, Inferno, and Golden Goose helped to consolidate the growing literary underground.

The famous reading at Six Gallery on Fillmore Street was publicized by Allen Ginsberg (via a hundred mailed postcards and a few flyers) thus:

mcclure_sixgallery

On October 7, 1955, in a room measuring 20 x 25 feet with a dirt floor, Ginsberg “read Howl and started an epoch.”(1) Gary Snyder, Philip Lamantia, Michael McClure, and Philip Whalen shared the bill and, by all reports, also read brilliantly. Aside from Rexroth and Whalen, all the readers were in their twenties. Again, in the words of Kenneth Rexroth, “What started in SF and spread from there across the world was public poetry, the return of a tribal, preliterate relationship between poet and audience.”(1)

These events, along with the flourishing of Lawrence Ferlinghetti’s City Lights Bookshop and publishing house, helped to inaugurate and consolidate what has become known as the San Francisco Renaissance. City Lights published Howl in 1956 (Ferlinghetti asked Ginsberg for the manuscript the same night it was read at the Six Gallery) as Number Four in the Pocket Poets Series. (It had been preceded by an extremely rare mimeographed edition, typed by Martha Rexroth and mimeographed by none other than Robert Creeley. Ginsberg’s Siesta in Xbalba had been mimeographed by the man himself on a freighter in the Alaskan Ocean.) Among the audience members that night was one who added his own chant, the young novelist Jack Kerouac, whose On the Road, published in 1957, was to make this reading and its readers legendary. It was also in 1957 that Charles Olson, rector of the experimental Black Mountain College, visited San Francisco and gave a series of lectures on Alfred North Whitehead at the Portrero Hill home of Robert Duncan and his companion, the painter Jess Collins. Among the attendees at the lectures were, of course, Duncan himself, but also Michael McClure, Gary Snyder’s Reed College friend Philip Whalen, Jack Spicer, and Richard Duerden. The same year saw the “San Francisco Scene” issue of Evergreen Review. Poet Helen Adam’s flamboyant 1961 ballad opera, entitled San Francisco’s Burning, epitomized the time, outrageous both aesthetically and socially. Other writers associated with the San Francisco Renaissance included James Broughton, Lew Welch, Ron Loewinsohn, Madeline Gleason, David Meltzer, Kirby Doyle, and Lenore Kandel.

Experimentation with forms of literature and lifestyle had long been an attractive characteristic of life in San Francisco. But the tolerance felt in Northern California was not as evident in Los Angeles. In 1957, an exhibit of work by assemblage artist Wallace Berman at the Ferus Gallery was closed by the Los Angeles Police Department, and Berman was jailed on charges of exhibiting “lewd and lascivious pornographic art.” Found guilty (by the same judge who ruled against Henry Miller), Berman and family left L.A. for San Francisco that year. Berman edited and published a fascinating assemblage magazine called Semina. After the raid of his exhibit at Ferus, he announced in Semina 2 that “I will continue to print Semina from locations other than this city of degen-erate angels.” Berman’s friend, artist George Herms, designed his own books and provided the artwork for others, including Diane di Prima. Herms had likewise found the political climate in L.A. intolerable and had preceded the Bermans to Northern California.

In the mid-1960s, John Martin’s Black Sparrow Press began publishing broadsides and booklets and has, over the years, published a wide variety of experimental and alternative poetry and prose, including work by Duncan, Olson, Spicer, and Creeley among very many others. 

Because of the previous associations of house printer/designer Graham Mackintosh, Black Sparrow is linked to earlier literary small presses of Northern California, particularly White Rabbit Press (at the urging of Jack Spicer, Mackintosh resurrected the press in 1962, printing Spicer’s own Lament for the Makers); Robert Hawley’s Oyez Press (Mackintosh had printed its first book in 1963); and Dave Haselwood’s Auerhahn Press, which flourished during the 1960s and early 70s in San Francisco. Auerhahn published a wide variety of well-designed books, including The Exterminator, an early example of William S. Burroughs and Brion Gysin’s cut-up technique, in 1960. Auerhahn also published John Wieners’s first book, The Hotel Wentley Poems. Oyez published many memorable volumes including Philip Lamantia‘s Touch of the Marvelous. Joe Dunn’s White Rabbit Press, which had begun publishing in 1957 with Steve Jonas’s rough work Love, the Poem, the Sea & Other Pieces Examined, produced books somewhat less elegant than Auerhahn’s or Oyez’s but with a beauty all their own.

The editorial genius behind White Rabbit was the irrepressible Jack Spicer, who published his own remarkable mimeographed magazine, J. Spicer emphasized the inclusion of writers who were not well published elsewhere, and accepted contributions for consideration in a box that was kept in one of three bars in the North Beach area of San Francisco. J is representative of the best of the mimeograph revolution: an uncompromising editorial stance combined with a playful, even colorful, formal character thanks to Fran Herndon, who edited the artwork for the magazine. Spicer’s model for J was Beatitude, which had begun publication in San Francisco slightly before J. And a recalcitrant model it was, since Spicer was not a fan of the Beats and carried on a running war against Ferlinghetti in particular. He imagined Ferlinghetti had become commercial and financially successful, thereby, in Spicer’s mind, “selling out” to the establishment. Magnificently consistent with his principles, Spicer never copyrighted his own work, anticipating the “no copyright, no nuthin” statements of Tom Clark’s London-based Once Series. The performative aspects of Spicer’s poetics as well as his personality also prefigured the rise of poetry readings in the 1950s, particularly those sponsored by the Poetry Center at San Francisco State, which featured mimeographed programs and booklets printing selections from the poets who were reading, among them, Charles Olson, Denise Levertov, and Louis Zukofsky.

Although Spicer’s J didn’t publish the works of “established” poets, Spicer did include the work of Robert Duncan in four issues of his magazine. Duncan and Jess Collins (whose work adorned the cover of many magazines and books of the period, including Open Space, Caterpillar, and The Floating Bear) were important influences on the literary and artistic scene in San Francisco in the 60s. Duncan’s early work was published in Berkeley or North Carolina (his Song of the Border-Guard was published by the Black Mountain College Press with a cover by Cy Twombly in 1952). Other earlier works were multilithed (Fragments of a Disordered Devotionin San Francisco in 1952) or mimeographed (the first hundred copies of Faust Foutu were mimeographed by Duncan himself, and the next 150 or so of one act of the play were multilithed by Joe Dunn of White Rabbit Press at his place of employment, the Greyhound Bus offices in San Francisco). The multilithed third edition of Faust Foutu, although also produced by Dunn, was published under Duncan’s own imprint, Enkidu Surrogate, of Stinson Beach. Duncan’s work was published by an amazing variety and number of publishers, including Oyez, Auerhahn, White Rabbit, Black Sparrow, Divers Press, Jargon, Perishable Press, City Lights, Grove Press, New Directions, and Scribners.

Slightly outside the Spicer circle (although some of his own poems were published in J) was Donald Allen, who, after the publication of The New American Poetry, 1945-1960 and before his removal to New York, established the Four Seasons Foundation in San Francisco, which published the work of a number of the writers from the anthology, including Charles Olson, Ed Dorn, Ron Loewinsohn, Philip Lamantia, Michael McClure, Joanne Kyger, Robin Blaser, and Robert Creeley. Among the early Four Seasons publications were two important works by poet Gary Snyder (the Reed College roommate of Lew Welch and Philip Whalen and the “Japhy Ryder” of Kerouac’s The Dharma Bums): Six Sections from Rivers and Mountains Without End and Riprap and Cold Mountain Poems, both published in 1965. Riprap, it should be noted, was originally published in 1959 as a booklet by Cid Corman’s Origin Press. Snyder’s Myths and Textswas published in 1960 by Corinth Books. Snyder was out of the country on an extended stay in Japan, and the text used for the Corinth publication was probably from a manuscript that LeRoi Jones had hand-copied from one that Robert Creeley had received from Snyder in 1955 or 1956. Snyder’s poetry was extremely popular in the 60s and was often used as text for broadsides by small presses, particularly those whose owners were ecologically minded. For instance, Snyder’s poem “Four Changes” was published in 1969 by Earth Read Out, a Berkeley environmental protection group, as four mimeographed pages, as well as in a folded, printed version in 200,000 copies by environmentalist Alan Shapiro for free distribution to schools and citizens’ groups.

Literary scenes with strong affiliations to the New American Poetry were in evidence elsewhere in California — most notably Bolinas in the 1970s, when that somewhat remote hippie village north of San Francisco became home to many poets. In particular, the transplanted easterner and Poetry Project veteran Bill Berkson and his press Big Sky flourished there in the decade, publishing both a magazine and a series of books. Bolinas residents of the period also included Robert Creeley, Bobbie Louise Hawkins, David Meltzer, Lewis Warsh, Tom Clark, Lewis MacAdams, Philip Whalen, Aram Saroyan, Joanne Kyger, Jim Carroll, and Duncan McNaughton, among others. Ted Berrigan, Alice Notley, and Joe Brainard were among many occasional visitors, with Joe Brainard’s Bolinas Journal providing an interesting record of one such extended stay.


(1) Kenneth Rexroth. AMERICAN POETRY IN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY (New York: Herder and Herder, 1971), p. 141.

White Rabbit Press

IMG_3062From 1957-1968, the White Rabbit Press published sixty-three books and ten broadsides. It was the primary publisher of the work of Spicer, Robin Blaser, and Robert Duncan—the three central figures of the literary movement first known as the Berkeley Renaissance, and later as the San Francisco Renaissance. 

Founded by Joe Dunn in 1957 to print the poetry of the Jack Spicer Circle, the first ten books were printed surreptitiously on a multilith at the Greyhound Bus offices on 7th street in San Francisco. These early books were illustrated by Jess, Robert Duncan, and Kenn Davis.

After a four-year hiatus, the imprint was revived in 1962 by Graham Mackintosh with Spicer’s LAMENT FOR THE MAKERS, which was published in a small edition of less than 100 copies and illustrated by Mackintosh. The press, in this second series, continued to publish through the 1980s.


Section A:
Books and Chapbooks

A1. Jonas, Steve. LOVE, THE POEM, THE SEA AND OTHER PIECES EXAMINED
jonas_loveFirst edition:
San Francisco: White Rabbit Press, November 1957
Hand-sewn in illustrated wrappers, 6.5″ x 8.5″, 12 pages, 200 numbered copies, multilith printed by Joe Dunn. Cover illustration by Jess Collins. (Johnston A1)

A2. Spicer, Jack. AFTER LORCA
spicer_lorcaa. First edition, regular copies:
San Francisco: White Rabbit Press, November-December 1957
Saddle-stapled in illustrated wrappers, 6.5″ x 8.5″, 76 pages, 474 copies, multilith printed by Joe Dunn. Jack Spicer’s first book of poetry. Cover illustration by Jess Collins. Introduction by Federico Garcia Lorca. (Johnston A2)

b. First edition, lettered and signed copies:
San Francisco: White Rabbit Press, November-December 1957
Saddle-stapled in illustrated wrappers, 6.5″ x 8.5″, 76 pages, 26 copies lettered and signed with a drawing by the author, multilith printed by Joe Dunn. Jack Spicer’s first book of poetry. Cover illustration by Jess Collins. Introduction by Federico Garcia Lorca. (Johnston A2)

c. First edition, second issue:
San Francisco: White Rabbit Press, November-December 1957
Unbound with out wrappers issued in mailing envelope, 6.5″ x 8.5″, 76 pages, 20 copies, multilith printed by Joe Dunn. Jack Spicer’s first book of poetry. Cover illustration by Jess Collins. Introduction by Federico Garcia Lorca. (Johnston A2)

A3. Levertov, Denise. FIVE POEMS
levertov_fiveFirst edition:
San Francisco: White Rabbit Press, January 1958
Hand-sewn and glued into illustrated wrappers, 6.5″ x 8.5″, 12 pages, (200 copies), multilith printed by Joe Dunn. Cover illustration by Jess Collins. (Johnston A3)

A4. Borregaard, Ebbe. THE WAPITIS
borregaard_wapitisFirst edition:
San Francisco: White Rabbit Press, January 1958
Hand-sewn in illustrated wrappers, 6.5″ x 8.5″, 12 pages, (200 copies), multilith printed by Joe Dunn. Ebbe Borregaard’s first book. Cover illustration by Robert Duncan. (Johnston A4)

A5. Stanley, George. THE LOVE ROOT
stanley_loveFirst edition:
San Francisco: White Rabbit Press, January 1958
Hand-sewn in illustrated wrappers, 6.5″ x 8.5″, 12 pages, (200 copies), multilith printed by Joe Dunn. George Stanley’s first book. Cover illustration by Robert Duncan. (Johnston A5)

A6. Duncan, Robert. FAUST FOUTU ACT 1
duncan_faustFirst edition:
San Francisco: White Rabbit Press, March 1958
Hand-sewn in printed wrappers, 6.5″ x 8.5″, 20 pages, 300 copies, multilith printed by Joe Dunn. Illustrated by Robert Duncan. (Johnston A6, Bertholf A7b)

This is part one of four parts of the dramatic reading originally presented at King Ubu Gallery.

A7. Dull, Harold. THE BIRD POEMS
dull_birdFirst edition:
San Francisco: White Rabbit Press, May 1958
Hand-sewn in illustrated wrappers, 6.5″ x 8.5″, 16 pages, 200 copies, multilith printed by Joe Dunn. Harold Dull’s first book. Cover illustration by Nugent. (Johnston A7)

A8. Brautigan, Richard. THE GALILEE HITCH-HIKER
brautigan_galileeFirst edition:
San Francisco: White Rabbit Press, May 1958
Hand-sewn in printed and illustrated wrappers, 6.5″ x 8.5″, 6 pages, 200 copies, multilith printed by Joe Dunn. Cover illustration by Kenn Davis.
(Johnston A8)

A9. Adam, Helen. THE QUEEN O’CROW CASTLE
adam_queenFirst edition:
San Francisco: White Rabbit Press, 1958
Hand-sewn in illustrated wrappers, 6.5″ x 8.5″, 20 pages, (200 copies), multilith printed by Joe Dunn. Cover illustration by Jess Collins. (Johnston A9)

A10. Olson, Charles. O’RYAN 2 4 6 8 10
olson_oryanFirst edition:
San Francisco: White Rabbit Press, September 1958
Hand-sewn in illustrated wrappers, 6.5″ x 8.5″, 16 pages, 300 copies, multilith printed by Joe Dunn. Cover illustration by Jess Collins. (Johnston A10)

A11. Spicer, Jack. LAMENT FOR THE MAKERS
spicer_lamentFirst edition:
Oakland: White Rabbit Press, 1962
Hand-sewn and glued into illustrated wrappers, 5.5″ x 8″, 16 pages, 125 copies planned (“probably less than 100 completed”), lithograph printed by Graham Mackintosh. Cover illustration by Graham Mackintosh. (Johnston A11)

According to Johnston, “Back of title page has a fictitious acknowledgments list (by Graham Mackintosh) taken from Robert Duncan’s The Opening of the Field.”

A12. Andrews, Jr., Lyman. FUGUTIVE VISIONS
andrews_fugitiveFirst edition:
Oakland: White Rabbit Press, 1962
Hand-sewn in printed wrappers, 5.5″ x 8″, 24 pages, lithograph printed by Graham Mackintosh. Illustrations by Graham Mackintosh.
(Johnston A12)

A13. Dull, Harold. THE WOOD CLIMB DOWN OUT OF
dull_woodFirst edition:
San Francisco: White Rabbit Press, 1963
Saddle-stapled in printed and illustrated wrappers, 5.5″ x 8.25″, 12 pages, lithograph printed by Graham Mackintosh. Illustrations by Graham Mackintosh. (Johnston A13)

A14. Primack, Ronnie. FOR THE LATE MAJOR HORACE BELL OF THE LOS ANGELES RANGERS
primack_lateFirst edition:
San Francisco: White Rabbit Press, 1963
Side-stapled sheets glued into printed and illustrated wrappers, 6″ x 9″, 32 pages, letterpress and offset printed by Graham Mackintosh. Illustrated by Graham Mackintosh. (Johnston A14)

A15. Stanley, George. TÊTE ROUGE / PONY EXPRESS RIDERS
stanley_teteFirst edition:
San Francisco: White Rabbit Press, 1963
Unbound sheets laid into illustrated wrappers, 6″ x 8.25″, 54 pages, lithograph printed by Graham Mackintosh. Cover design by Bill Brodecky, Illustrated by Paul Alexander.
(Johnston A15)

A16. Kearney, Lawrence. FIFTEEN POEMS
First edition:
San Francisco: White Rabbit Press, 1964
Saddle-stapled and glued into printed wrappers, 5.75″ x 9″, 20 pages, letterpress printed by Graham Mackintosh. Kearney’s first book. (Johnston A16)


A17. Thorman, Janet. THE TAROT SUITE
thorman_tarotFirst edition:
San Francisco: White Rabbit Press, 1964
Saddle-stapled in printed wrappers, 5.5″ x 8.5″, 24 pages, letterpress printed by Graham Mackintosh. (Johnston A17)

According to Johnston this books was offered for free as a supplement to OPEN SPACE magazine.

A18. Spicer, Jack and Lawrence Ferlinghetti. DEAR FERLINGHETTI
spicer_ferlingFirst edition:
San Francisco: White Rabbit Press, 1964
Single 8.5″ x 14″ sheet folded once, letterpress printed by Graham Mackintosh. (Johnston A18)

According to Johnston this work arose out of a dispute between Spicer and Ferlinghetti’s City Lights Book Shop.

A19. Spicer, Jack. THE HOLY GRAIL
spicer_holya. First edition, regular copies:
San Francisco: White Rabbit Press, 1964
Saddle-stapled and glued into illustrated wrappers, 6.25″ x 8.5″, 80 pages, lithograph printed by Graham Mackintosh. Illustrated by Graham Mackintosh. (Johnston A19)

b. First edition, hardcover copies:
San Francisco: White Rabbit Press, 1964
Hardcover, 6.25″ x 8.5″, 80 pages, 13 copies signed (4 were reportedly destroyed during signing), lithograph printed by Graham Mackintosh. Illustrated by Graham Mackintosh. (Johnston A19)

A20. Duncan, Robert. AS TESTIMONY
duncan_testimonya. First edition:
San Francisco: White Rabbit Press, 1964
Saddle-stapled in printed wrappers, 6″ x 9.25″, 24 pages, 350 copies, letterpress printed by Graham Mackintosh. (Johnston A20, Bertholf A12a)

a. Second edition:
San Francisco: White Rabbit Press, 1965
Second edition, saddle-stapled printed wrappers, 6″ x 9″, 24 pages, letterpress and offset. (Johnston A31, Bertholf A12b)

A21. Blaser, Robin. THE MOTH POEM
a. First edition, regular copies:
San Francisco: Open Space, December 1964
Side-stapled and glued into printed wrappers, 5.5″ x 8.25″, 32 pages, 288 copies, letterpress printed by Graham Mackintosh. (Johnston A21)

b. First edition, hand-colored copies:
San Francisco: Open Space, December 1964
Side-stapled and glued into printed wrappers, 5.5″ x 8.25″, 32 pages, 12 copies with hand-colored end papers by the author, letterpress by Graham Mackintosh. (Johnston A21)

c. Second edition:
San Francisco: Open Space, December 1964
Side-stapled and glued into printed wrappers, 5.5″ x 8.25″, 32 pages, 288 copies, offset printed in letterpress wrappers by Graham Mackintosh. (Johnston A23)

A22. Dull, Harold. THE DOOR
First edition:
San Francisco: Open Space, 1964
Side-stapled and glued into collaged wrappers, 8.5″ x 11″, 58 pages, lithograph printed by Graham Mackintosh. (Johnston A22)


A23. Duerden, Richard. THE FORK
duerden_forkFirst edition:
San Francisco: Open Space, 1964
Saddle-stapled sheets glued into printed french-fold wrappers, 6.75″ x 8.5″, 92 pages, 500 copies, errata sheet tipped in, letterpress printed by Graham Mackintosh. (Johnston A24)

A24. Alexander, James. ETERNATURE
alexander_eturnatureFirst edition:
San Francisco: Oannes-Open Space, April 1965
Side-stapled sheets glued into printed and illustrated french-fold wrappers, 7.25″ x 10.25″, 104 pages, 250 copies, lithograph printed by Graham Mackintosh. Illustrated by Paul Alexander. (Johnston A25)

A25. Olson, Charles. O’RYAN 1-10
olson_oryan02a. First edition, regular copies:
San Francisco: White Rabbit Press, September 1965
Saddle stapled in illustrated wrappers, 6.25″ x 8.75″, 16 pages, 1000 copies, letterpress printed by Graham Mackintosh. Illustrated by Jess Collins. (Johnston A26)

b. first edition, hardcover copies:
San Francisco: White Rabbit Press, September 1965
Hardcover, 6.25″ x 8.75″, 16 pages, 26 lettered copies, letterpress printed by Graham Mackintosh. Illustrated by Jess Collins (Johnston A26)

A26. Blaser, Robin. LES CHIMERES
a. First edition, regular copies:
San Francisco: Open Space, September 1965
Saddle-stapled in printed dust jacket, 5.5″ x 8.25″, 32 pages, 500 copies, letterpress printed by Graham Mackintosh. (Johnston A27)

b. First edition, hardcover copies:
San Francisco: Open Space, September 1965
Hardcover in printed dust jacket, 5.5″ x 8.25″, 32 pages, 26 lettered copies, letterpress printed by Graham Mackintosh. (Johnston A27)

A27. Stanley, George. FLOWERS
stanley_flowersa. First edition, regular copies:
San Francisco: White Rabbit Press, 1965
Saddle-stapled printed wrappers, 5.75″ x 8.75″, 32 pages, 500 copies, letterpress printed by Graham Mackintosh. (Johnston A28)

b. First edition, hardcover copies:
San Francisco: White Rabbit Press, 1965
Hardcover, 5.75″ x 8.75″, 32 pages, 26 lettered and signed copies, letterpress printed by Graham Mackintosh. (Johnston A28)

A28. Dull, Harold. THE NIGHT OF THE PERSEIDS
San Francisco: White Rabbit Press, 1965
This title, after review by the author, was never issued.
(Johnston A29)

A29. Spicer, Jack. LANGUAGE
spicer_languagea. First edition:
San Francisco: White Rabbit Press, June 1965
Perfect-bound illustrated wrappers, 6.25″ x 10″, 72 pages, 950 copies, letterpress printed by Graham Mackintosh. (Johnston A30)

b. First edition, second printing:
San Francisco: White Rabbit Press, 1970
Perfect-bound illustrated wrappers, 6.25″ x 10″, 72 pages, 950 copies, offset printed from the first edition. Text added to the colophon: “Second printing 1970”. (Johnston A54)

A30. Duncan, Robert. THE SWEETNESS AND GREATNESS OF DANTE’S DIVINE COMEDY
a. First edition, first printing
San Francisco: Open Space, December 1965
Side-stapled in illustrated wrappers, 6.75″ x 9.25″, 28 pages, 500 copies, lithograph printed by Graham Mackintosh. Illustrated by Robert Duncan. (Johnston A32, Bertholf A17a)

a. First edition, second printing
San Francisco: Open Space, January 1967
Side-stapled in illustrated wrappers, 6.75″ x 9″, 28 pages, 500 copies, lithograph printed by Graham Mackintosh. Illustrated by Robert Duncan. This second printing has no colophon and the title page’s artwork is slightly altered. (Johnston A32, Bertholf A17b)

A31. Spicer, Jack. BOOK OF MAGAZINE VERSE
spicer_magazinea. First edition:
San Francisco: White Rabbit Press, March 1966
Perfect-bound in printed and illustrated wrappers, 5.5″ x 7.75″, 56 pages, 1500 copies, letterpress printed by Graham Mackintosh. Prepared for publication from the original manuscript by Stan Persky. Illustrated by Graham Mackintosh. (Johnston A33)

According to Johnston, “The cover is a parody of the cover of Poetry(Chicago). The poems are arranged in groups intended for various little magazines and newspapers, each section printed on a stock appropriate to that publication, so that for example, the poems for Tish are on blue mimeo paper, those for the St. Louis Sporting News on newsprint.”

b. First edition, second printing
San Francisco: White Rabbit Press, 1970
Perfect-bound in printed and illustrated wrappers, 5.5″ x 7.75″, 56 pages, 1500 copies, letterpress printed by Graham Mackintosh. Prepared for publication from the original manuscript by Stan Persky. Illustrated by Graham Mackintosh. (Johnston A33)

A32. Ryan, John Allen. RUT
First edition:
(San Francisco): Graham Mackintosh, January 1966
Saddle-stapled in printed and blind-stamped wrappers, 5.5″ x 8.5″,  24 pages, 500 copies, letterpress printed by Graham Mackintosh. Illustrated by Knute Stiles. (Johnston A34)

A33. Alexander, James. THE JACK RABBIT POEM
alexander_jacka. First edition, regular copies:
San Francisco: White Rabbit-Open Space, March 1966
Saddle-stapled in printed wrappers, 5.5″ x 9″, 20 pages, 724 copies, letterpress printed by Graham Mackintosh. (Johnston A35)

b. First edition, hardcover copies:
San Francisco: White Rabbit-Open Space, March 1966
Hardcover, 5.5″ x 9″, 20 pages, 26 lettered and signed copies, letterpress printed by Graham Mackintosh. (Johnston A35)

A34. Perksy, Stan. LIVES OF THE FRENCH SYMBOLIST POETS
First edition:
San Francisco: White Rabbit Press, 1966
Saddle-stapled in printed wrappers, 5″ x 7.25″, 16 pages, letterpress printed by Graham Mackintosh. Dedication: “for / Jack Spicer”. (Johnston A36)


A35. Stowers, J. Anthony. THE ALIENS
First edition:
San Francisco: White Rabbit Press, 1967
Saddle-stapled in printed and photo-illustrated wrappers, 5″ x 7.25″, 32 pages, letterpress printed by Graham Mackintosh. (Johnston A37)


A36. Miles, Josephine. SAVING THE BAY
First edition:
San Francisco: Open Space, 1967
Saddle-stapled in printed and illustrated French-fold wrappers, 7″ x 10″, 12 pages, letterpress printed by Graham Mackintosh. (Johnston A38)


A37. Dull, Harold. THE STAR YEAR
dull_starFirst edition:
San Francisco: White Rabbit Press, October 1967
Saddle-stapled in printed and illustrated wrappers, 6″ x 9″, 48 pages, 500 copies, letterpress printed by Graham Mackintosh. Cover illustration by Fran Herndon. (Johnston A39)

A38. Duncan, Robert. THE CAT AND THE BLACKBIRD
First edition:
San Francisco: White Rabbit Press, 1967
Comb-bound in illustrated wrappers, 9.25″ x 12″, 52 pages, 500 copies, lithograph printed by Graham Mackintosh from author’s manuscript. Illustrated by Jess Collins. (Johnston A40)

A39. Dunn, Joe. BETTER DREAM HOUSE
dunn_betterFirst edition:
San Francisco: White Rabbit Press, April 1968
Saddle-stapled in printed and illustrated wrappers, 6.75″ x 9.25″, 32 pages, 1000 copies. Illustrated with paste-ups by Jess Collins. (Johnston A41)

A40. Stanley, George. BEYOND LOVE
First edition:
San Francisco: Open Space .·. Dariel Press, 1968
Saddle-stapled printed and illustrated wrappers, 5.75″ x 8.5″, 36 pages, letterpress printed by Graham Mackintosh. Dedication: “for Harold Dull”. (Johnston A42)

A41. Brautigan, Richard. PLEASE PLANT THIS BOOK
First edition:
San Francisco: Graham Mackintosh, 1968
Folder containing 8 printed seed packets, folder measures 6.25″ x 7″, 6000 copies, letterpress and offset printed by Graham Mackintosh. Photographs by Bill Brach. (Johnston A43)

A42. Thibeau, John. AN OPEN LETTER TO CHE GUEVARA
First edition:
San Francisco: White Rabbit Press, 1968
Printed envelope containing 3 printed sheets, sheets measure 8.5″ x 11″, lithograph printed by Graham Mackintosh. (Johnston A44)


A43. SAN FRANCISCO PUBLIC LIBRARY PRESENTS DURING AUGUST FIFTY YEARS OF GREAT PRINTING BY GRAHAM MACKINTOSH
First edition:
San Francisco: Graham Mackintosh, 1968
Folio sheet folded in quarters with 8-page booklet stapled inside, 6.5″ x 10″. Includes interview with Mackintosh by Robert Hawley (Oyez), the 8-page booklet lists books designed and printed by Mackintosh including titles from White Rabbit, Oyez, and Black Sparrow.  Printed at Dick’s Quick Print Press. (Johnston A45)

A44. Chapson, James. JIM’S BOOK
a. First edition:
White Rabbit Press, 1969
(Johnston A46)

b. Second edition:
Nine Beasts Press, 1969
(Johnston A47)

A45. Spicer, Jack. A BOOK OF MUSIC
a. First edition, regular copies:
San Francisco: White Rabbit, 1969
Saddle-stapled illustrated wrappers, 6.25″ x 9.25″, 20 pages, 1800 copies designed and printed by Ron and Graham Mackintosh from a typescript made available by Peter Howard. The cover was one decided upon by the author. Illustrated by Graham Mackintosh. (Johnston A48)

b. First edition, variant copies:
Variant copies include additional printed text on the front leaf: “150 copies printed Christmas, 1969 / for friends of White Rabbit, Oyez, / and the author”. (Johnston A48a)

A46. Liddy, James. A LIFE OF STEPHEN DEDALUS
a. First edition, regular copies:
White Rabbit Press, December 1969
Saddle-stapled in illustrated wrappers, 6.5″ x 9″, 24 pages, 474 copies, letterpress printed by Graham Mackintosh. (Johnston A49)

b. First edition, signed copies:
White Rabbit Press, December 1969
Saddle-stapled in illustrated wrappers, 6.5″ x 9″, 24 pages, 26 lettered and signed copies, letterpress printed by Graham Mackintosh. (Johnston A49)

A47. Dusenbery, Walter. THE STORY OF THE BED
First edition:
Natoma Society, 1970
Perfect-bound in printed wrappers, 6″ x 6″, 32 pages, letterpress printed by Graham Mackintosh. (Johnston A50)


A48. Ryan, John Allen. UNION ONION
First edition:
San Francisco: White Rabbit Press, 1970
(Johnston A51)

A49. Siverley, Bill. DREAMS OF ORPHEUS
First edition:
White Rabbit Press, March 1970
(Johnston A52)

A50. Garcia, Luis. THE MECHANIC
First edition:
White Rabbit Press, 1970
Perfect-bound in printed wrappers, 6″ x 8.5″, 88 pages, 500 copies, letterpress printed by Graham Mackintosh. Illustrated by Walter Dusenberry. (Johnston A53)

A51. Felson, Larry. BODY SONG
a. First edition, regular copies:
San Francisco: Elephant Press, April 1970
Saddle-stapled in printed wrappers, 5.75″ x 8.5″, 16 pages, 187 copies, letterpress printed by Ronald Mackintosh. (Johnston A55)

b. First edition, signed copies:
San Francisco: Elephant Press, April 1970
Saddle-stapled in printed wrappers, 5.75″ x 8.5″, 16 pages, 13 signed and lettered copies, letterpress printed by Ronald Mackintosh. (Johnston A55)

Elephant Press was a “subsidiary” of White Rabbit Press.

A52. Scola, Eileen. TO MARY MAGDALENE
First edition:
San Francisco: Elephant Press, 1970
(Johnston A56)

A53. Dorbin, Sandy. THE RUBY WOODS
a. First edition, regular copies:
San Francisco: White Rabbit Press, 1971
Perfect-bound in printed wrappers, 5.75″ x 9″, 36 pages, 454 copies, letterpress printed by Graham Mackintosh. Illustrated by Chuck Miller. (Johnston A57)

b. First edition, hardcover copies:
San Francisco: White Rabbit Press, 1971
Hardcover, 5.75″ x 9″, 36 pages, 26 numbered and signed copies, letterpress printed by Graham Mackintosh. Illustrated by Chuck Miller. (Johnston A57)

A54. Liddy, James. A MUNSTER SONG OF LOVE & WAR
a. First edition, regular copies:
San Francisco: White Rabbit Press, 1971
Saddle-stapled in printed wrappers, 6″ x 8.25″, 24 pages, 450 copies, letterpress printed by Graham Mackintosh. (Johnston A58)

b. First edition, hardcover copies:
San Francisco: White Rabbit Press, 1971
Saddle-stapled in printed wrappers, 6″ x 8.25″, 24 pages, 50 copies, letterpress printed by Graham Mackintosh. (Johnston A58)

A55. Kearney, Lawrence. DEAD POEM
First edition;
San Francisco: White Rabbit Press, 1971
(Johnston A59)

A56. Thibeau, Jack. CONVERSATIONS WITH APOLLINAIRE
First edition:
San Francisco: White Rabbit Press, 1972
Saddle-stapled in printed and illustrated wrappers, 6.25″ x 10″, 16 pages, letterpress printed by Graham Mackintosh. (Johnston A60)


A57. Liddy, James. BAUDELAIRE’S BAR FLOWERS
First edition:
Santa Barbara: Capra Press, 1975
(Johnston A61)

A58. Farquhar, David. THE BIRTH OF ISRAEL
First edition:
White Rabbit Press, 1976
(Johnston A62)

A59. Spicer, Jack. COLLECTED POEMS, 1945-46
First edition:
Berkeley: Oyez/White Rabbit Press, 1981
Saddle-stapled printed wrappers, 7″ x 9″, 32 pages, lithographed from the author’s typescript. (Johnston A63)



References consulted:

Bertholf, Robert J. ROBERT DUNCAN: A DESCRIPTIVE BIBLIOGRAPHY
Santa Rosa: Black Sparrow Press, 1986

Johnston, Alastair. A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE WHITE RABBIT PRESS
Berkeley: Poltroon Press in association with Anacapa Books, 1985

Richard Brautigan

Richard Gary Brautigan (January 30, 1935 – ca. September 14, 1984) was an American novelist, poet, and short story writer. brautigan_01Writing about nature, life, and emotion, his work often employs 
comedy, parody, and satire; his singular imagination provided the unusual settings for his
themes. He is best known for his 1967 novel TROUT FISHING IN AMERICA.

Robert Novak wrote in Dictionary of Literary Biography that “Brautigan is commonly seen as the bridge between the Beat Movement of the 1950s and the youth revolution of the 1960s.”

Considered one of the primary writers of the “New Fiction,” Brautigan at first experienced difficulty in finding a publisher; thus his early work was only published by small presses.

About the body of Brautigan’s work, Guy Davenport commented in the Hudson Review: “Mr. Brautigan locates his writing on the barricade which the sane mind maintains against spiel and bilge, and here he cavorts with a divine idiocy, thumbing his nose. But he makes clear that at his immediate disposal is a fund of common sense he does not hesitate to bring into play. He is a kind of Thoreau who cannot keep a straight face.”

* The bibliographic notes here focus on Brautigan’s earliest publications of poetry.


A. Books and Broadsides

1. THE RETURN OF THE RIVERS
brautigan_returnSan Francisco: Inferno Press, May 1957
First edition, broadside tipped into wrappers, 100 copies.
Brautigan poem: “The Return of the Rivers”
(Barber 4)
[not in archive]

2. THE GALILEE HITCH-HIKER
brautigan_galileeSan Francisco: White Rabbit Press, 1958
First edition, sewn illustrated wrappers, 6.5″ x 8.5″, 16 pages, 200 copies, cover illustration by Kenn Davis.
Brautigan poem: “The Galilee Hitch-Hiker”
(Barber 7)

3. LAY THE MARBLE TEA
brautigan_laySan Francisco: Carp Press, 1959
First edition (second printing issued in 1960), stapled illustrated wrappers, 5.5″ x 8.5″, 16 pages, (c. 500 copies), cover illustration by Kenn Davis.
Brautigan poems: “Portrait of the Id As Billy The Kid”, “Sonnet”, “The Chinese Checker Players”, “Portrait of a Child-Bride on Her Honeymoon”, “Hansel and Gretel”, “April Ground”, “The Ferris Wheel”, “Night”, “Cyclops”, “The Escape of the Owl”, “In a Cafe”, “Fragment”, “Herman Melville in Dreams, Moby Dick in Reality”, “Kafka’s Hat”, “Yes, the Fish Music”, “Cantos Falling”, “The Castle of the Cormorants”, “Feel Free to Marry Emily Dickinson”, “Cat”, “A Childhood Spent in Tacoma”, “To England”, “A Boat”, “Geometry”, “The Twenty-Eight Cents for My Old Age”
(Barber 11)

4. THE OCTOPUS FRONTIER
brautigan_octopusSan Francisco: Carp Press, 1960
First edition, stapled pictorial wrappers, 5″ x 7″, 20 pages, cover photograph by Gui de Angulo.
Brautigan poems: “The Sawmill”, “1942”, “The Wheel”, “The Pumpkin Tide”, “The Sidney Greenstreet Blues”, “The Quail”, “The Symbol”, “A Postcard from Chinatown”, “Sit Comma and Creeley Comma”, “The Rape of Ophelia”, “The Last Music Is Not Heard”, “The Octopus Frontier”, “The Potato House of Julius Caesar”, “The Fever Monument”, “The Winos on Potrero Hill”, “Mike”, “Horse Race”, “The Old Folk’s Home”, “The Postman”, “Surprise”, “The Nature Poem”, “Private Eye Lettuce”
(Barber 12)

5. SEPTEMBER CALIFORNIA
San Francisco: San Francisco Arts Festival Commission, 1964
First edition, broadside, 12.75″ x 20″, 300 copies. Broadside laid in a portfolio entitled SAN FRANCISCO ARTS FESTIVAL: A POETRY FOLIO: 1964. Printed by East Wind Printers. Ilustrated by Richard Correll.
Brautigan poem: “September California” [uncollected]
(Barber 15)


B. Contributions to Books and Anthologies

1. FOUR NEW POETS, edited by Leslie Woolf Hedley

brautigan_fourSan Francisco: Inferno Press, 1957
First edition, perfect-bound illustrated wrappers, 5.5″ x 8″, 34 pages, Brautigan’s first book appearance. Contributors include Martin Hoberman, Carl Larsen, and James M. Singer.
Brautigan poems: “The Meek Shall Inherit the Earth’s Beer Bottles”, “The Mortuary Bush”, “Twelve Roman Soldiers and an Oatmeal Cookie”, “Gifts”
(Barber 3)

2. EPOS ANTHOLOGY 1958, edited by Will Tullos and Evelyn Thorne
mags_eposanth1958Lake Como: New Athenaeum Press, 1958
Brautigan poem: “The Second Kingdom”





3. BEATITUDE ANTHOLOGY, edited by Bob Kaufman and John Kelly
San Francisco: City Lights Books, 1960
Brautigan poems: “The American Submarine”, “A Postcard from the Bridge”, “That Girl”, “The Whorehouse at the Top of Mount Rainer”, “Swandragons”
(Barber 13)


C. Contributions to Periodicals


1. FLAME, Vol. 2, No. 3, edited by Lilith Lorraine

mags_flame0203Alpine, Autumn 1955
Brautigan poem: “Someplace in the World a Man is Screaming in Pain” [uncollected]
(not in Barber)



2. CAXTON POETRY REVIEW, Vol. 1, No. 3, edited by Albert R. Temple and Evelyn T. Browning
Cincinnati: Caxton Press, Winter 1956-1957
“A Correction” [uncollected]
(not in Barber)
[not in archive]

3. EPOS, Vol. 8, No. 2, edited by Evelyn Thorne and Will Tullos
mags_epos0802Lake Como: Epos, Winter 1956
Brautigan poem: “The Second Kingdom” [uncollected]
(Barber 1)



3. CAXTON POETRY REVIEW, Vol. 1, No. 3, edited by Albert R. Temple and Evelyn T. Browning
Cincinnati: Caxton Press, Spring 1957
“If the Wind Should Borrow Time” [uncollected]
(not in Barber)
[not in archive]



4. EPOS, Vol. 8, No. 4, edited by Evelyn Thorne and Will Tullos
mags_epos0804Lake Como: Epos, Summer 1957
Brautigan poem: “A Young Poet” [uncollected](Barber 2)




5. MAINSTREAM, Vol. 2, No. 2, edited by Robin Raey Cuscaden and Ronald Often
Palatine, Summer-Autumn 1957
Brautigan poem: “The Final Ride” [uncollected]
(not in Barber)




6. EXISTARIA, No. 7, Edited by Carl Larsen
mags_existaria07Hermosa Beach, September-October 1957
Brautigan poems: “The Daring Little Guy on the Burma Shave Sign” [uncollected], “The World Will Never End” [uncollected]
(not in Barber)


7. DANSE MACABRE, Vol. 1, No. 1, edited by R.T. Baylor
Manhattan Beach: Danse Macabre, 1957
Brautigan poems: “They Keep Coming Down the Dark Streets” [uncollected], “15 Stories in One Poem” [uncollected]
(not in Barber)
[not in archive]

8. HEARSE, No. 2, edited by E.V. Griffith
mags_hearse02Eureka: Hearse Press, 1958
Brautigan poem: “15 Stories in One Poem” [previously published in DANSE MACABRE]
(Barber 5)



9. HEARSE, No. 3, edited by E.V. Griffith
mags_hearse03Eureka: Hearse Press, 1958
Brautigan poems: “The Mortuary Bush” [previously published in FOUR NEW POETS], “Twelve Roman Soldiers and an Oatmeal Cookie” [previously published in FOUR NEW POETS]


10. EPOS, Vol. 9, No. 3, edited by Will Tullos and Evelyn Thorne
mags_epos0903Lake Como: Epos, Spring 1958
Brautigan poem: “Kingdom Come” [uncollected]
(Barber 9)




11. SAN FRANCISCO REVIEW, No. 2, edited by R.H. Miller
mags_sfreview02
San Francisco, Spring 1959
Brautigan poem: “Psalm” [uncollected]
(Barber 10)




12. BEATITUDE, No. 1, edited by Bob Kaufman, John Kelly, and William J. Margolis
San Francisco, 9 May 1959
Brautigan poem: “The Whorehouse at the Top of Mount Rainer” [collected in BEATITUDE ANTHOLOGY]
[not in archive]


13. BEATITUDE, No. 4, edited by Bob Kaufman, John Kelly, and William J. Margolis
San Francisco, 30 May 1959
Brautigan poems: “The American Submarine”, “A Postcard from the Bridge”, “That Girl”, “The Sink” [all collected in BEATITUDE ANTHOLOGY]
[not in archive]

14. BEATITUDE, No. 9, edited by Bob Kaufman, John Kelly, and William J. Margolis
San Francisco, 18 September 1959
Brautigan poem: “Swandragons” [collected in BEATITUDE ANTHOLOGY]
[not in archive]



15. J, No. 1, edited by Jack Spicer
mags_j01
San Francisco, September 1959
Cover illustration by Fran Herndon
Brautigan poem: “The Fever Monument” [collected in THE OCTOPUS FRONTIER]



16. FOOT, No.1, edited by Richard Duerdan
mags_foot01San Francisco, September 1959
Cover illustration by Robert Duncan
Brautigan poem: “The Rape of Ophelia”, “Postcard from Chinatown”, “The Nature Poem”, “Horse Race”, “The Last Music is Not Heard” [all collected in THE OCTOPUS FRONTIER]

17. J, No. 4, edited by Jack Spicer
mags_j04San Francisco, November 1959
Cover illustration by Fran Herndon
Brautigan poem: “The Pumpkin Tide”, “The Sidney Greenstreet Blues”, “Surprise” [all collected in THE OCTOPUS FRONTIER]


18. J, No. 5, edited by Jack Spicer
mags_j05San Francisco, December 1959
Cover illustration by Fran Herndon
Brautigan poem: “1942” [collected in THE OCTOPUS FRONTIER]



19. HEARSE, No. 9, edited by E.V. Griffith
mags_hearse09Eureka: Hearse Press, 1961
Brautigan poem: “The Rain” [uncollected]





20. SUM, No. 3, Edited by Fred Wah
Albuquerque, May 1964
Brautigan poem: “September California” [collected in Revenge of the Lawn]

21. NOW NOW, [Now No. 2], Edited by Charles Plymell
San Francisco: Ari Publications, 1965
Brautigan poem: “Banners of My Own Choosing” [collected in Revenge of the Lawn]

22. SAN FRANCISCO KEEPER’S VOICE, Vol. 1, No. 4, edited by Alexander Weiss
San Francisco, April 1965
Brautigan poem: “October 2, 1960” [uncollected]

23. WILD DOG, No. 18, edited by Joanne Kyger, contributing editor Edward Dorn
mags_wilddog18San Francisco, 17 July 1965
Brautigan poems: “The Buses” [uncollected], “Period Piece” [uncollected]



24. O’ER, No. 2, edited by David Sandberg
mags_oar02San Francisco, December 1966
Brautigan poems: “The House” [uncollected], “My Nose is Growing Old” [collected in All Watched Over by Machines of Loving Grace], “November 3” [collected in All Watched Over by Machines of Loving Grace]


References consulted:
Barber, John F. Richard Brautigan: An Annotated Bibliography.
Jefferson: McFarland, 1990